Absolute Threshold: The minimum amount of stimuli needed to produce sensation
Difference Threshold: Minimum amount of difference a person can detect 2 stimuli
Signal Detection Theory: A theory predicted how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends on a person’s experiences, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Weber’s Law: Placed scientific percentages on detectable differences, claimed it was proportional
Subliminal Messages: stimuli that is too large delicate to be noticed, but it sensed
Sensory Adaptation: when conscious brain stops recognizing a stimulus (ex: going into a cold ocean doesn’t seem as cold after awhile)
Habituation: a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations
Transduction: The image on the retina is then transformed into electrical signals in a process known as transduction. This allows the visual messages to be transmitted to the brain to be interpreted
Sensory Cortex: the region of the cerebral cortex concerned with receiving and interpreting sensory information from various parts of the body
Olfactory Bulb: axons of olfactory epithelium connects to olfactory bulb, which is considered the smell center of the brain; olfactory bulb records messages and send them to the temporal lobe and brain core
Thalamus: the thalamus processes and transmits movement and sensory information. It is essentially a relay station, taking in sensory information and then passing it on to the cerebral cortex
Cornea: a clear, dome-shaped structure that covers the front of the eye, helped eye locus
Aqueous humor: The aqueous humor is a thick watery substance that is located in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye between the cornea and the lens. Variations in the efficiency of the liquid can affect vision.
Pupil: hole in the center of the eye that allows light to pass through
Iris: The colored part of the eye, a ring of muscle fibers behind the cornea, and in front of the lenses. It controls the size of pupil.
Ciliary muscle: It controls the shape of the lens
Lens: focuses light
Retina: Converts light rays into electrical signals and send them to the brain through the optic nerve. Transduction occurs here. Sides are responsible for peripheral vision
Fovea: The smallest part of our retina is responsible for sharpest vision. It is the center of central vision. Contains the highest concentration of cones.
Cones: sees with color
Rods: sees with black and white
Optic nerve: Connects eye to the brain. Sensory neuron (afferent neuron)
Blind spot: Break in the retina to allow optic nerve connection. (In back of eye)
Feature Detectors: specialized brain cells that respond to particular elements such as movement or lines.
Afterimage Effect: sensory experience that occurs after a visual experience has been removed; when eyes adjust to stimulation (or lack of) but they do not completely adjust/adapt.
Additive Color: light waves, all color combined to make white
Subtractive Color: paints, remove all color makes white
Opponent Process Theory: Once we tire one color receipt, the other will win out (Ex: blue vs yellow, red vs green, black vs white)
Young Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory: Eye has cones only for red, green, blue
Tympanic membrane (ear drum): a thin membrane that vibrates when sound waves reach it
Malleus (hammer): a tiny bone that passed vibrations from the eardrum to the anvil
Incus (anvil): a tiny bone that passes vibrations from the hammer to the stirrup
Stapes (stirrup): a tiny U-shaped bone that passes vibrations from the stirrup to the cochlea. This is the smallest bone in the human body.
Cochlea: A spiral-shaped, fluid-filled inner body structure; it is lined with cilia (tiny hairs) that move when vibrated and cause a neural impulse to form.
Oval window: a membranous opening in the bony wall of the…