Psychological And Sociological Theories

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This assignment will explore the ways in which psychological and sociological theories seek to explain human behaviour.
Sigmund Freud has defined human behaviours as individual transformed by the structure of society, objective and exists outside individual’s consciousness. Freud believed that our minds had both the conscious and unconscious, generated from the “id. (Clark, and Meldrum. 2000)”The human behaviour and mind look at the human creation as a whole so that it produces some behaviour that are complicated, the behaviour of the other people or group. It moves back to the 19th century. Freud, J Watson, BF Skinner, Maslow and many more others made it popular (Eysenck, and Flanagan. 2001, pp. 396)
The first Psychological theory is a humanistic
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The “Functionalism” is another sociological theory that looks at the society as it is made of parts that work successfully as a group to keep the society as a whole, as the society is a primary well balanced, to value consensus through socialisation. Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons are involved in the development of functionalist (Haralambos, 2008).
The basic needs of the society are fulfilled, for example, education, that will help the schools to be built to benefit the community, and for the community to have clinics and hospitals. They believe that there is compatibility and integration in between the parts of the community because people share the same values and norms by socialisation. Everybody benefit from functionalism and cultural system as Parson (1951). For example, how people are expected to dress at the party and also to the funeral. The functionalist believes that society is meritocratic (Browne, 2002, O’Donnell 1997).
Advantages of functionalism it values consensus it creates order with the society. Everybody is benefiting from
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The theorist such as Antonio Gramsci criticised the functionalism theory that it does not encourage people to take an active role in changing society environment, that it may be beneficiary to the society as a whole. It does not help the society because of the conformity, as it resulted showing the hidden curriculum in schools. This becomes unfair to the society leading people being disadvantaged that is a reason why today I am at a university to be educated to improve myself due to unfairness within the society. Whereas the upper class benefits from Marxism so that they can keep all the benefit (Haralambos, M.