1. Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental process.
2. Interactive dualism-the ideas that mind and body were separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other conscious experience.
3. Role of Physiology-a branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms, including humans.
4. The start of psychology field: -2nd half of the 1800s -Wilhelm Wundt (the founder, uses scientific method to study fundamental psychological processes, such as mental reaction times in response to visual or auditory stimuli) 1879
5. Structuralism –Edward B. Titchener -Major school of thought in Psychology -Held that even our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental structures, component parts, of sensations and feelings. Functionalism –William James -Stressed the how behavior functions allow people and animals to adapt to their environment. (Didn’t limit methods to introspection) Behaviorism – John B. Watson -Emphasize the study of observable behaviors; they pertain to the process of learning. Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud -Emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality. Humanistic School- Humanistic Psychology-Carl Rogers -School of psychology emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
6. Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) - First woman president of the American Psychological Association. William James (1842-1910) -Harvard Professor, establishing Psychology, Functionalism John B. Watson (1878-1958) -Behaviorism, focus on conscious mental processes. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Vienna-Austria -Psychoanalysis: the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality. -Human behavior was motivated by unconscious conflicts were sexual or aggressive in nature. G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924) -First Ph.D. in psychology, first laboratory in 1883, first journal, first APA president Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist -Behaviorism, dogs can learn to associate a neutral stimulus. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) American Psychologist -Psychology should restrict itself to study outwardly observable behaviors could be measured and verified.
-Use reinforcement or punishment to shape the behavior of rats