— the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes — attempts to uncover why and how we do what we do. Different theories of psychology govern how different psychologists approach research into human behavior. Each of the following grand theories provides an overarching framework within which most psychological research is conducted. Each of these theories has a different point of emphasis when approaching the core psychological questions of why, how, and what. A lot of research and theory is based on one or more of these grand theories: •Biological: Focuses on the biological underpinnings of behavior and the effects of evolution and genetics. The premise is that behavior and mental processes can be explained by understanding human physiology and anatomy. Biological psychologists focus mostly on the brain and the nervous system. •Psychoanalytic: Emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes and early child-development issues as they relate to childish impulses, childish wishes, immature desires, and the demands of reality. •Behaviorism: Emphasizes the role of previous learning experiences in shaping behavior. Behaviorists don't traditionally focus on mental processes because they believe that mental processes are too difficult to observe and measure objectively. Behaviorism is involved in the ongoing controversy of the influence of television and videogame violence on children. •Cognitive: Focuses on the mental processing of information, including the specific functions of reasoning, problem solving, and memory. Cognitive psychologists are interested in the mental plans and thoughts that guide and cause behavior. •Humanistic and existential: Emphasize the uniqueness of each individual person and our ability and responsibility to make choices in our lives. Humanists believe that a person's free choice, free will, and understanding of the meaning of events in his or her life are the most important things to study. •Sociocultural: Focuses on the social and cultural factors that affect our behavior. The
This assignment will explore the ways in which psychological and sociological theories seek to explain human behaviour.
Sigmund Freud has defined human behaviours as individual transformed by the structure of society, objective and exists outside individual’s consciousness. Freud believed that our minds had both the conscious and unconscious, generated from the “id. (Clark, and Meldrum. 2000)”The human behaviour and mind look at the human creation as a whole so that it produces some behaviour that…
Outline and evaluate two social-psychological theories of aggression (24 marks).
Bandura believed that the potential for aggression may be biological, but the expression of aggression is learned. The social-learning theory (SLT) states that learning occurs through observation of a model. Imitation of an observed behaviour is more likely if the model is someone we aspire to or identify with or if they are rewarded. This is vicarious reinforcement. A child forms a mental representation of an event…
Discuss psychological theories for the maintenance and breakdown of romantic relationships (8+16 marks)
One psychological theory of relationship maintenance is the investment model. This theory suggests that commitment in a relationship is strengthened by the amount of satisfaction in a relationship which is weakened by presence of possible alternatives. This theory suggests that there should be satisfaction in a relationship in order for it to become long-term. The satisfaction in a product of…
Discuss in relation to relevant psychological theories and studies
Interpersonal relationships are the close relationships we form with others around us. They range from close romantic relationships up to more casual relationships such as acquaintances or university peers. There are numerous numbers of social factors that may lead to interpersonal attraction such as proximity, physical attractiveness, similarity and reciprocity. There are also numerous theories into attraction and how humans form…
How can social psychological theories make the world a better place in relation to explaining and resolving acts of criminal damage?
Humans are social animals interacting with one another each and every day, where there are interactions between individuals there are psychological theories to try and explain the nature in which individuals and society act. The application of psychology in a social environment is known as social psychology. Gordon W. Allport (1954) pioneered the…
Aspects of Psychology
14 July 2013
Theories of Psychology .
Behaviorist approaches are different from most other perspectives because they view people as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment. The early philosophical base for this learning perspective of personality is English philosopher, John Locke (1632-1704) who viewed the new born baby as a blank slate - tabula rasa - on whom the…
UNIT 8; PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES FOR HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
Description of Unit
The aim of this Unit is to introduce the learner to the different psychological perspectives and to encourage the application of these approaches to the study of health and social care. The value of psychological studies to the understanding of health and social care will be examined.
You will consider the meaning of the term ‘theories’ in the context of psychology and begin to appreciate the diversity of…
Introduction to Ethics
Psychological Egoism vs. Altruism
It is to be understood that “ethics is the branch study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man” (Jeff Landauer, 2001). It may be concluded that ethics is the philosophical study of what is right or wrong, good or bad, in that part of human conduct for which we are responsible, excluding areas such as etiquette, professional codes, legal and religious codes. Many people raise the question: Is ethics…
Theories on Family
Why Research This Issue
is important because if offers a way
to reconcile our personal reality with
► Replication lessens the possibility that
research will be biased by political or
► Crime is a social problem that may
better be understood through scientific
measures data through
Statistical measurement of court
This file of SOC 490 Week 3 Discussion Question 2 Psychological Reflections on Online Academic Dynamics includes:
Having studied group and individual psychological theories, as a follow up to this week
Sociology - General Sociology
Psychological Reflections on Online Academic Dynamics . Having studied group and individual psychological theories, as a follow up to this week’s first discussion, analyze your online academic experience from one of the perspectives found in social psychology…