Dopamine hypothesis – symptoms can be treated with dopamine antagonists e.g chlorpromazine.
Frith – barrier between pre-conscious and conscious has been broken down and so external stimuli is given priority and is perceived as auditory hallucinations.
Helmsley – stored memory gets confused with new incoming information. Therefore, they cannot use schemas to make sense of their situation meaning that they are subjected to an overload of sensory information and do not know which to attend to. He also suggests that the internal voice is not recognised.
Bental – Suggests that sz have attentional bias towards stimuli that are life threatening and have an emotional nature and therefore these thoughts are given priority.
Anderson and Dil – violent and non-violent games – told that the study was about motor skills. After 15 minutes participants were then asked to play a competitive game against an opponent, there was no opponent. This game was a reactions test. The person who was the fastest could give the opponent noise blast.
Anderson – longitudinal study- surveyed 7-9 year olds.
Sims and maya – people who play Tetris had improved spatial skill.
Saggy – showed that cognitive experiences like this can lead to long term changes in the brain. Overall, asked 1 of 3 participants to play a game for 8 minutes. Pro social aggressive games and a neutral game.
Negative effects of computer:
Karpinsky – Facebook
Charles et al – Facebook habits.
Gonzales – Facebook has a positive influence on self-esteem.
Peter found that shy and self-conscious people are more likely to disclose information online.
Libbert – found that on average there were 11 alteristic acts and 6 sympathetic behaviours per hour of programmes. However, these acts frequently appeared in the context of anti social behaviour.
5 factrors that effect imitation:
Physically able to copy
If the model was rewarded
If the individual has internalised these social norms they will have greater expectations of a reward. Therefore, imitation is more likely.
Sprafkin – split children into 2 groups, group 1 watched lassie and group 2 watched the brady bunch. After a game winner promised a prize.
Herald – reviewed over a hundred studies of the effects of pro social programmes on childrens behaviour.
Singer – Parents discuss moral content
Kolp and hartop
Mckenna – childrenaged 4-10, episode of power rangers.
Media influence on anti-social behaviour:
Bandura – children played in aggressive behaviour – however simulated aggression, bobo doll is a toy, just playing. In turn shows that this study is not actually valid- not a true measure, simulated aggression.
Zilman – excitation transfer.
Donerstein – male university students who watched 3 films.
Swanson – support donerstein
St Helena study
Bellson – agree with desensitisation theory
Violence is more likely to frighten children.
The theory can only account for desensitising for screen watching rather than real life violence.
Goldstein – after men watched a violent film, they were more concerned about murder and thought that harsh punishments should be in place. The theory would expect that men would be desensitised towards murder and more likely to commit murder.
Television persuasion –
1. Capture attention – eye catching, iconic images or controversial or annoying. Holbrook measured channel hopping during the adverts and found that only eye catching advertisements captured the viewers’ attention. Controversial adverts tend to be more memorable, annoying adverts are also more memorable such as cilit bang, go compare.
2. Comprehension - The message must be easy to understand. This is less important in advertising as many television adverts intentionally encourage peripheral route.
3. Favourable association –