Essay on Psychology: Child and Wedding Irreversibility Child

Submitted By alyssamaucieri
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Pages: 8

Chapter 5
1. Describe the normal physical growth during the play years, and account for variations in height and weight.
Become slimmer and body lengthens
At least 3 ½ feet tall
Has adult like body proportions
Weighs between 40 & 50 pounds
What influences growth? (Goes with #1)
Genetics
Gender (preK boys usually taller than preK girls but have similar weights till puberty)
Nutrition (healthy food choices etc. all 4 groups covered)
Sleep
health status (chronic illness)

2. Describe changes in eating habits during the preschool years.
How many calories does the average preschooler need? * How to cope with picky eating?
1) let them help pick out fruits & vegetables at the store
2) kids like to try food they help make
3) try to make meals at stress free time
4) offer choices/ varieties (broccoli or string beans?)

3. Describe the development of the prefrontal cortex during the play years and its role in impulse control and appropriate focus
“executive” of the brain, all other regions controlled by it maturation gradually enables children to focus attention& curb impulses immaturity causes: impulsiveness or preservation
Ages 2-6 Maturation allows:
More regular sleep patterns
Emotions become more nuance & responsive
Temper tantrums decrease

4. Describe the development of the limbic system
Refers to parts of the brain that are crucial in the expression & regulation of emotions
Amygdala-registers emotions, particularly fear & anxiety
Frightening nightmares or sudden night terrors
Hippocampus-central processor of memory, esp. for locations
Hypothalamus-responds to amygdala & hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain or body
Immaturity of 1st 2 can lead to fearlessness when they should be cautious/ or vice versa

#5 Motor Skills during play years
AGE 2
Walk upstairs-Gross
Feed self with spoon-Fine
AGE 3
Pedal a tricycle -Gross
Copy simple shapes-Fine
AGE 4
Dress self (pants, shirt)-Gross
Pour juice without spilling-Fine
AGE 5
Climb trees-Gross
Use a knife to cut- Fine
AGE 6
Ride a bicycle-Gross
Write simple words (cat, dog, name)-Fine

Cognitive Development
6. Major Characteristics of Piaget’s stage or preoperational thought
Centration
child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others daddy is a father only, can’t be a brother or son, that’s all hes known as
Egocentrism
Child’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective (self-centeredness)
Static Reasoning
Child thinks that nothing changes whatever is now always has been & always will be
ON TEST! ex: older son looks at picture of wedding photo & asked if he was being babysat during the wedding
Irreversibility
Child thinks that nothing can be undone
A thing can’t be restored to the way it was before change
Child has trouble going backwards & forwards in their thinking processess
Lack of Conservation
Idea that something remains the same, despite changes in appearance
Ex: glasses with liquid
Artificialism
Ex: child says, “make it stop raining” so they can go outside and play
Belief that humans can control natural events
Animism
Belief that natural objects & phenomena are alive
Lifelike characteristics to things that aren’t living
Clouds, mountains, & trees thought to have feelings, goals, & even souls
Magical thoughts, powers
Transduction Reasoning
Causal connection between A & B when there is none
Ex: Johnny gets in a fight with sister Sally, few hours later she comes down with the flu, he thinks he caused it

7. Vygotsky’s views (importance of social context)
Guided Participation (pg.11)
Mentors help beginners to master skills needed to be successful
“Apprentice in Thinking”
Zone Of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Skills that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently
Working on puzzle but can’t finish it without help
Scaffolding
Temporary support to enable learners to move through…