1) Prenatal is the time from conception to birth. It is about a nine month period. Infancy is the period that extends from birth to about 18 to 24 months. It is a time of extreme dependence on adults. Early Childhood is the period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age. Children learn to become more self-sufficient during this period. Middle and late childhood extends from about 6 to 11 years of age. Children master the fundamental skills of reading, writing and arithmetic during this period. Lastly, adolescence is from about 10 to 22 years of age. Dramatic changes in height and weight happen during this time as well as changes in the body contour.
2) The controversy is that the development can not be explained by nature alone or nurture alone. Although, nature is the more important influence on development is biological inheritance and nurture claims that environmental experiences are the most important influence.
3) The contributions are their emphasis on the importance of scientific research, their focus on environmental determinants of behavior, the identification and explanation of observational learning and the inclusion of person/cognitive factors. Criticisms include too little emphasis to cognition, too much emphasis to environmental determinants, inadequate attention to developmental changes and inadequate recognition to human spontaneity and creativity.
4) Genotype is a persons genetic heritage. It is the actual genetic material. Whereas phenotype is the way individuals genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics.
5) Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in females in which either an x chromosome is missing or part of one x chromosome is deleted. Females with this chromosome are short in stature and have a webbed neck. Some are infertile and have difficulty in math. 1 in every 2,500 have turners syndrome.
6) Chorionic Villus Sampling is used to detect genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities. A small sample of the placenta is removed. There is a small risk of limb deformity when CVS is used. Amniocentesis is a prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
7) The germinal period is the period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. This period involves the creation of the fertilized egg, known as a zygote, cell division and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall. Rapid cell division by the zygote continues throughout this period. The embryonic period is the period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. During this period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies support systems for cells form and organs appear. This period begins as the blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall. The mass of cells is called an embryo and three layers of cells form. The fetal period is the prenatal period between two months after conception and birth in typical pregnancies. Growth and development continue during this period. During this period, the fetus is about 3 inches long and weighs about 3 ounces. It is more active and its arms and legs move freely.
8) Pregnant women can improve the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy by having a healthy diet, exercising and prenatal care. Exercise during pregnancy helps prevent constipation, conditions the body and is associated with a more positive mental state. A healthy diet is important because maternal obesity affects pregnancy outcomes through increased rates of hypertension, diabetes, respiratory complications and infections in the mother. Prenatal care is important because women who had no prenatal care are far more likely to have infants who have low birth weight, increased mortality and a number of other physical problems.
9) Possible effects of folic acid