Personality disorders are defined as any of a group of mental disorders characterized by deeply ingrained maladaptive patterns of behavior and personality style, which are usually recognizable as early as adolescence and are often lifelong in duration (Dictionary.com, 2012). Personality disorders are often diagnosed using the DSM-IV’s Axis II. It is used as a sort of flow map for determining the proper diagnosis. The personality disorders that will be touched on in this paper will be the three main clusters: Cluster A (odd/ eccentric), Cluster B (dramatic/erratic), Cluster C (anxious/inhibited); as well as way of treating them.
Cluster A or the odd/eccentric personality disorders are related with schizoid characteristics, meaning the person has a fear of intimacy, closeness or doesn’t have the ability to connect with others normally. In more intense cases they may have schizophrenia (Ohio State University Medical Center, 2012). The people suffering from these disorders are often social awkward and socially withdrawn. The Paranoid Personality Disorder often lacks trust in others and assume others are out to harm or take advantage of them (Hoermann, 2011). The Schizoid Personality Disorder peoples are often isolated socially nor do they seek out close relationships, others may often see them as cold or detached. People with Schizotypal Personality Disorders tend to be socially isolated, reserved and distant (Hoermann, 2011). They pick up on perceptual abnormalities that are often not there. They may believe they can read peoples thoughts or go along with conspiracy theories or focus on other subjects excessively.
Cluster B or dramatic/erratic personality disorders include the following: narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder. This cluster shares problems with impulse control and emotional regulation (Hoermann, 2011). The majority of the disorders in this cluster have to do with a constant need for attention to feel needed or wanted. Or in the narcissistic case, there is so much attention within one’s self that they often feel better than others and that others owe something to them. The Antisocial Personality Disorder is characterized by repeated participation in illegal acts, hostile-aggressive behaviors towards others, deceitfulness, and reckless behavior (Hoermann, 2011), such as sociopaths. Persons with Histrionic Personality Disorder tend to be very dramatic and prefer to be the center of attention (Hoermann, 2011). People with this disorder are often quite flirtatious or seductive, and like to dress in a manner that draws attention to them (Hoermann, 2011). The way they express themselves tends to be exaggerated, and yet at the same time, is vague, shallow, and lacking in detail (Hoermann, 2011). Another disorder that falls under this cluster would be the borderline personality disorder which is classified as anyone who tends to experience intense and unstable emotions and moods that can change drastically, like bipolar disorders.
Cluster C or anxious/inhibited personality disorders fall into three disorders: Dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. A person with a Dependent Personality Disorder relies heavily on others for validation and fulfillment of basic needs, and are unable to properly care for themselves (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2012). Avoidant personality disorders are hypersensitive to rejection, and therefore avoid potential conflicts (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2012). People with Obsessive-compulsive