Lara L. Ashbaugh
January 21, 2013 Schizophrenia, Psychosis, and Physical Disorders
Two categories are discussed physical disorders and psychosis. Psychosis is usually associated with schizophrenia. Physical disorders are usually associated with somatoform disorders are physical but have no medical reason for it. A system of classification combining categorical and dimensional representations may be found in psychosis (Van Os, 2010). “Psychotic symptoms in older individuals may be more common than was previously thought. Conditions in which psychotic symptoms may occur in older adults include chronic illnesses such as dementia, schizophrenia, and delusional disorder, and acute transient disorders such as delirium and substance-induced psychosis” (Reeves & Brister, 2008, p. 1). Schizophrenia and Psychosis
Psychosis is a state of being overwhelmingly out of touch with reality; psychosis can take many forms. Psychotic people may experience hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are abnormal sensory experiences such as hearing or seeing nonexistent things. Delusions are fixed, false, and often bizarre beliefs. One mental disorder most associated with psychosis, it is schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a disorder marked by psychosis and a decline in adaptive functioning (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
In addition to psychosis, schizophrenia causes impairment in many mental functions and a general disruption and decline in the individual’s ability to function normally (Hansell & Damour, 2008). The DSM-IV-TR currently defines schizophrenia in terms of a constellation of severe cognitive and behavioral symptoms that last for a certain length of time (six months or more) and result in significant life impairment (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
According to the DSM-IV the main symptoms of schizophrenia fall into two categories: positive or type I and negative or type II. The positive symptoms are pathological excesses (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, thought, and behavior (Hansell & Damour, 2008). The negative symptoms are pathological deficits) emotional flatness, loss of motivation, diminished cognitive skills, and withdrawal (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Etiologies
Researchers have mixed feelings about what causes schizophrenia. Many researchers believe that schizophrenia is a hereditary predisposition although evidence from obstetric reports provides information that complications or infections during pregnancy and birth may contribute to schizophrenia. In addition some research suggests that psychological stressors may bring out the latent pathology if the patient is genetically predisposed (Gleitman, 1999).
The stronger the predisposition, the less stress would be required to ignite the disorder. Social class and the family environment have been said to have an impact on schizophrenia as well. Early studies of schizophrenia revealed an undeniable fact. Compared to an individual at the top of the socioeconomic hierarchy, one at the bottom is more likely to be schizophrenic. The original interpretation of these findings was that poverty, inferior status, and low occupational rank led to increased psychological stress, which led vulnerable individuals to become schizophrenic (Gleitman, 1999).
Most believe that of the downward drift theory, which holds simply that schizophrenics fall to the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder because their condition prevents them from holding down a job or maintaining a personal relationship. Treatments
Schizophrenia is a disease that was thought to be biological and caused by genetics. Schizophrenia comes in two different variations, immediate or predisposing immediate causes consist of defects in the brain and misshapen brain structure. It is believed that these effects may not be causes of schizophrenia, the predisposing factors generally answer the