Psychology: Sleep and Motivation Definition Essay

Submitted By phill155
Words: 1742
Pages: 7

Assignment One

Unit 1 – Sleep Assignment

1) CRITICAL THINKING: SLEEP (worth 10 pts.) Read the sections on REM and non-REM sleep deprivation in the textbook on pgs 132-133. Explain how and why these types of sleep benefit us based on the sleep deprivation studies discussed in the textbook.
REM sleep deprivation: REM sleep deprivation does not cause memory problems; in fact, it even improves memory slightly. After we learn a piece of information, REM sleep deprivation does not interfere with our retention of that information. REM sleep deprivation can help people who suffer from depression. In these individuals, this condition has been associated with a lower than-normal amount of the neurotransmitter serotonin in their neuronal synapses. During REM sleep, the amount of serotonin production is reduced, and this healthy mechanism allows receptors to rest from absorption of the neurotransmitters. However, in people with depression, serotonin levels are already low, and REM sleep deprivation can actually be beneficial for some patients because it increases the amount of serotonin.

Non-REM sleep deprivation: Smaller animals have faster metabolisms than larger animals. A natural by-product of these processes is free radicals, dangerous substances that damage cells. Thus, faster metabolism equals more damage. During non- REM sleep, however, certain proteins are more efficient in repairing the damaged cells. More non-REM sleep equals more repair of cells.


The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is used to determine the level of daytime sleepiness. A score of 10 or more is considered sleepy. A score of 18 or more is very sleepy. If you score 10 or more on this test, you should consider whether you are obtaining adequate sleep, need to improve your sleep hygiene and/or need to see a sleep specialist.
Use the following scale to choose the most appropriate number for each situation:
0 = would never doze or sleep.
1 = slight chance of dozing or sleeping
2 = moderate chance of dozing or sleeping
3 = high chance of dozing or sleeping
Situation Chance of Dozing or Sleeping
Sitting and reading __1__
Watching TV __1__
Sitting inactive in a public place __0__
Being a passenger in a motor vehicle for an hour or more __1__
Lying down in the afternoon __3__
Sitting and talking to someone __0__
Sitting quietly after lunch (no alcohol) __2__
Stopped for a few minutes in traffic while driving __0__
Total Epworth sleep score (add the scores up) __8__

Unit 2 – Drugs and Stress Assignment

1) CRITICAL THINKING: DRUGS (worth 10 pts) Next read the entire page on this link: which describes the characteristics of people under the influence of several drugs. Then, they will have to identify which drugs correlate with the behaviors of the people listed below:

a. Tommy is highly addicted to his drug. He needs it to function day to day. When he first got high, he experienced the best high he’d ever had, and he is constantly searching for it again. It is unachievable. He has constricted pupils, droopy eyelids, nods off, has respiratory depression or failure, dry itching skin, and skin infections. He is also at an elevated risk of HIV and AIDS. What drug is he on?

b. Natalie injects her drug but it can snorted, smoked, or taken orally. She has hallucinations, out-of-body experiences, aggressive behavior, and an inability to feel physical pain. Her drug is often called “angel dust”. What is her drug?

c. Debbie first used her drug when she was 14. When she uses, she becomes paranoid, gets bloodshot eyes, dry mouth and hunger. She also had trouble with learning and memory. Her drug can be eaten or smoked. What is her drug?

d. Adam’s drug has altered his appearance in a way he did intend. He has developed feminine characteristics. He also has acne and feels moody. But he’s got the biggest muscles in the gym. What is