Psychology Test Review Essay

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT TEST REVIEW

I. Emotions
a. hard to define, expressed by people everywhere the same
b. emotions have 3 major components
1. cognitive: mental state of emotion consciousness of how we feel
2. physical: muscle movements (heart rate, breathing, etc.)
3. behavior: how emotions affect our actions
c. how emotions help us evolve
1. fear: allowed us to escape danger more quickly
2. love: allowed us to form enduring bonds to strengthen community
3. joy: created a scene of safety and comfort in good times
d. emotions are affected by 3 major factors
1. heredity: genes inherited from your parents
2. learning: life experiences, models by adults, media (men less openly emotional then women)
3. maturity: your emotions change as you age
II. Freud
a. neurologist who studied origins of physical ailments
b. freud’s reasoning showed that most motives for behavior come from unconscious or sub-conscious mind developed a new theory: the mind works in 3 ways egotistical id super ego
c. conscious mind conscious rational part of the mind where conscious decisions are made, ego develops and changes through life
d. unconscious mind id: seeks pleasure, avoids pain, operates subconsciously ( not rational) super ego: the conscious tells us what we should and shouldn’t do also unconscious comes from social value (i.e parents teaching kids to share)
e. brain is like an iceberg
f. why do we avoid negative behavior we fear punishment / want rewards internalize ideas of right and wrong
g. id vs super ego as a new born we are all id, later develops into super ego and ego super ego and id are always in conflict pulling ego in different directions creates stress and conflict causing problems with behavior called neurosis, anxieties, phobias, and obsessions
h. defense mechanisms subconsciously; hiding problems so they don’t bother us consciously most common rationalization: justifying your actions with an excuse rather then admitting a future mistake denial: believing a falsehood rather then accepting reality projection: blaming unpleasant feelings or inappropriate actions on others escape: running away from a problem repression: blocking out thoughts about unpleasant things or experiences identification: acting like somebody else, associating somebody’s accomplishments with your own displacement: expressing feelings towards something or someone not associated with the source or feelings regression: returning to an earlier way of dealing with frustration; returning to a mindset that required less responsibility compensation: making up for lack of one thing by achieving something else sublimation: transferring unacceptable behaviors into acceptable ones
i. psychoanalysis helping patients to access subconscious thoughts or feelings free association: responding to a ward with first thought or feeling that comes to mind dream analysis: asking patients to describe their dreams then analyzing them hypnosis: putting a patient in a dream like state allowing them to access subconscious thoughts, feelings and memories
j. personality development
1. oral stage birth to 12-18 months interest in oral gratification (sucking, eating, mouthing)
2. anal stage
12-18 months to 3 years gratification from expelling or withholding feces (anal retentive, anal expulsive) coming to terms with social controls (toilet training)
3. the phallic stage
3 years to 5-6 years discovery of libido – interest in genitals coming to terms with gender oedipus complex (want to get rid of father) electra complex (daughter got rid of mother to get father)
4. the latent phase
5-6 years to adolescence sexual concerns largely un important
5. the genital phase adolescence to adulthood re-emergence of sexual interest establishment of mature sexual relationships
III. Jung
a. understanding the psyche by examining dreams, art, religion, and philosophy, accepted the importance…