A bias is an inclination to present or hold a partial perspective at the expense of (possibly equally valid) alternatives.
Test makers must prevent “bias” in the popular sense of the word: making it easier for one group than another to score high on a test and prevent making it easier for one group than for another to have their abilities accurately assessed, and their future performance predicted.
Example of a Bias:
Are Tests Biased?
Bias 1: In the popular sense of the word, intelligence tests are often biased. Often, tests have questions which rely on knowledge of mainstream culture. For example, the 2011 SAT writing prompt demanded students discuss the authenticity of reality television shows.
Bias 2: Aptitude tests seem to predict future achievement equally well for various ethnic groups, and for men and women.
Power of Expectations:
Stereotype Threat: a feeling that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. * May interfere with performance by making people use their working memory for worrying instead of thinking. * This worry s self-confirming/fulfilling: the effect of minority status on performance is worsened by worry about that effect. * Stereotype threat is a potential contributing factor to long-standing racial and gender gaps in academic performance.
The Effect of Stereotype Threat – a) Study result: Blacks/African-Americans scored higher when tested by Blacks rather than being tested