Psychopathology and Individual Differences Essay

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Pages: 10

Individual differences – Psychopathology

Definitions of Abnormality-
1. DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS:
Deviation refers to dominant behaviour – ‘Behaviour which is considered undesirable by the majority’ – For example; Talking to yourself in public
LIMITATIONS:
The definition is susceptible to abuse: Diagnosing someone with a mental illness could just be a way to exclude non conformists from society
For example, homosexuality was considered a ‘mental disorder’ in the USA until 1970s also anyone who disagreed with the state could be regarded as insane in Russia in the 1960s
Doesn’t take into account context and degree – How badly does someone need to deviate from the norm to be considered ‘Abnormal’
For example, someone in a
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Dopamine levels)
Deterministic
Relinquished responsibility
PSYCHOSURGERY –
Risky as it’s unclear what is being done
It can be fatal and make your condition worse
It’s very expensive
It’s time consuming
Patient may recover

The Psychodynamic approach to Psychopathology –

TRIPARTITE PERSONALITY
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
Freud says childhood is important since an imbalance of these three part leads to impacts as an adult.

ID (pleasure)
Biological components of personality
Instinctual/impulsive part of psych
Demands immediate satisfaction resulting in pleasure or un pleasure (if unfulfilled)
Not affected by reality/logic etc

EGO-REALITY
Part of ID which has been modified by the external world
Balances unrealistic ID with external real world
Works by reason – according to reality principle

SUPEREGO-IDEAL
Involves values and morals of society
Develops around age of 4-5
Controls ID’s impulses
Persuades ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than basic realistic ones
Freud developed the theory that sexuality starts young and develops through fixations; if these aren’t completed