Public Administration and Adb / Oecd Anti-corruption Initiative Essay

Submitted By Arsalan-Gaffoori
Words: 8189
Pages: 33

CHAPTER 1

Preventing Corruption
A. Preventing corruption in public administrations B. Curbing corruption in the political sphere
C. Regulating the business sector and fostering ethical business

PREVENTING CORRUPTION

Public Administrations

3

Preventing Corruption

C

orruption and bribery thrive on systemic weaknesses. Efforts to prevent corruption aim at eliminating these weaknesses and enhancing integrity and transparency. This goal is common to corruption prevention in the key sectors – public administrations, the political sphere and the business sector. The means of putting this objective into practice, however, differ among these sectors, due to the variety of regulatory frameworks and operational environments.
Despite large differences in the problems prevalent in the various countries and the existing remedies, recent efforts to prevent corruption target similar areas across the region. Most countries that have endorsed the Anti-Corruption Action Plan, for example, attribute an important role to administrative reform. The various strategies to prevent corruption address integrity, effective procedures and transparent rules. Corruption in the political sphere attracts growing attention in more and more countries covered by this report. The demand for the accountability of political leaders and the transparency of political parties has begun to trigger reform in those areas. Private business has also become a focus of anti-corruption reform: besides being object of state oversight, this sector has started its own initiatives to curb corruption.

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific

A. Preventing corruption in public administrations

P

revention of corruption in the public service ranks high on many countries’ reform agendas. So far, varying levels of effort and achievement have taken place. Reforms aim at ensuring the competence and integrity of public officials as individuals. Administrative rules and procedures and the overall management and oversight of public administration are also under review, with a particular focus on the reform of public procurement. Corruption prevention in the political sphere also seems to draw growing attention these days. Due to the special status of elected officials and the different regulations to which they are consequently subject, however, these measures are dealt with in a separate section of this report (see section B below).

I. Integrity and competence of public officials
The integrity and competence of public officials are fundamental prerequisites for a reliable and efficient public administration. Many countries in the region and beyond have thus adopted measures that aim to ensure integrity in the hiring and promoting of staff, provide adequate remuneration and set and implement clear rules of conduct for public officials. 1. Hiring and promotion of public officials
Openness, equal opportunity and transparency in hiring and promoting public officials are essential to ensure an honest, competent and independent public service. Corrupt practices in this crucial process take many forms: for example, nepotism and cronyism – the use of public power to obtain a favor for a family member or other affiliate – are common in a number of countries. Unclear eligibility criteria and insufficient publication of vacant positions make it difficult to attract talented candidates to the public service.

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific

6

ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICIES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Defining the criteria, procedures and institutional framework by law is an essential precondition for transparent and fair selection and promotion procedures. Most if not all countries subject to this survey have enacted such laws. These usually prescribe the advertisement of vacant positions in the press or other media. In Korea, Singapore and the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China
(hereinafter Hong Kong,…