The Question of Female Citizenship The Martin vs. Massachusetts case began in 1801 when the son of William and Anna Martin, James Martin, sued Massachusetts for his mother’s confiscated land. After losing his case, he challenged the decision of the lower courts and brought it upon the Massachusetts Supreme Court. The fuss of this case in 1805 rested on the question of citizenship, specifically female citizenship, and what acts included them. First, citizens must be defined. According to Anglo-American government, citizens were the inhabitants of New America. The citizens of the republic declared themselves independent of the British Crown. Citizens must abide by the laws their government set in place and must enter a social contract. Furthermore, having property entitled the citizens to economic and political independence needed to enter the social contract (p. 138). Citizenship in the republic required certain qualities, like land ownership, which excluded many groups. Citizens did not include those without property or who were not sufficient to provide for themselves such as the poor, children, slaves, and servants (p. 138). The government expected the adult males to fulfill their duties in time of need by serving in the militia. Women and children were not able to aid in war. Citizens must remain within the boundaries of the United States. The previous definitions of citizenship took on a masculine role. Within the United States, the women had a form of citizenship because they were inhabitants and members of the nation. Although, they were not “fully enfranchised citizens (p. 138).” A married woman was considered feme-covert, which translated into “wife was literally covered by husband (p. 139).” They were to act under their husband. Under this law, they were exempt from the privileges given to citizens. Married women were not allowed to buy, sell, or own property independent of their husband. She could not enter into contracts, act in a court of law, vote, serve on juries, or hold public office (p. 139). Citizenship largely rests on the ownership of property and the ability to provide aid and defense in the United States. George Blake argued that Anna Martin was not a member of the new nation at all. She had no political relations to the states, he said. Citizens were required to take oath, but the women were never asked to take an oath nor did they. “A married woman’s status as a feme-covert severely restricted her access to property (p. 139).” Anna Martin had to surrender the management of her property to her husband. William Martin had many rights over the land, except he could not sell the land without consent of his wife. Those who did not have property did not have the economical and political power to enter a social contract, which were the married women, were not fully enfranchised citizens. Yet, the government argued that by staying within the United States, the women had a choice to act on their own judgement. The government stated that women, too, are members and inhabitants of the new nation. Why were they not included in the benefits the citizens had? The preamble said that every member must provide his personal service in time of need in arms and defense for the United States. Yet, the government expected adult males to serve in the militia. Surely, they did not want to exercise women in the militia for aid. Going back on the idea that women were femes-covert, according to the law of God, a wife had to obey what her husbanded commanded. She simply could not have remained in the states if her husband fled for exile due to the personal vows she had taken. Justice Sedgwick made a
GCE Citizenship Studies (2100)
The Blue Coat School
Candidate’s full name
As a part of this GCE course you will be expected to be involved in a wide range of active citizenship tasks. Your involvement in these tasks should be recorded in this active citizenship profile.…
Cohen, the author of “Semi-Citizenship in Democratic Politics,” is an associate professor at Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs.
Who deserves to be a U.S. citizen?
It’s a question President Obama and Congress are trying to answer. But it’s also one we’ve been grappling with since our country’s earliest days. The founders had a clear answer: People who immigrated and spent years building lives in this country deserved citizenship.…
According to the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, if someone is born in the United States then they are granted instant citizenship. Illegal immigrants take advantage of this right and come to the U.S. with the intention of giving their child American citizenship. In a 2010 editorial posted in The Washington Times, a newspaper founded by the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, “Eight percent of babies born in U.S. hospitals in 2008 had mothers who were illegal aliens” (502).…
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Guiding You Through Citizenship, Green Card, Visas and Passport Applications
STEP 1 - REVIEW YOUR APPLICATION
Let’s begin! For this step you will need a printed copy of your application (Form I-90, Application to Replace Permanent Resident Card).…
Then I waited a few weeks and took an interview and had to answer questions about U.S. history in English. Last they made me swear an oath of loyalty to the United States of America.
3. How would you describe how you felt about the process?
It was a very long process, and I was very stressed out that it couldn’t happen faster.
4. How has gaining citizenship changed your life? Is your daily life different because of gaining citizenship?…
It covers federal-question cases and diversity-of-citizenship cases. Diversity- of-citizenship applies with two conditions; the plantiff does not reside in the same state of the defendant and the issue concerns and amount greater than $75,000. Diversity-of-citizenship could apply is the sueing amount is greater than $75,000.
a. Three written responses include:
Third wave Democracies:
Third-wave democracies have been hit by emergence of controversial social forces, uneven incorporation of social sectors, actually these new political institutions troubled by movements rallying against the failure of states to universalize democratic practices and achieve political autonomy.…
This act required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship.
Congress then passed the Alien Act on June 25, authorizing the President to deport aliens "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" during peacetime.
The third law, the Alien Enemies Act, was enacted by Congress on July 6. This act allowed the wartime arrest, imprisonment and deportation of any alien subject to an enemy power.…
I believe in World Citizenship
Someone asked me one time why I seem irritated when I hear the question “where are you from”? Honestly, the main reason is that I hear this specific question several times every day. People are always intrigued by my accent and the fact that I know so much about other countries. The truth is, it is unfair to those people for me to get upset because there is no way for them to know that several other people already asked me the same thing.…