What is diabetes?:
Diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose in the blood rises. This is due to the fact that the body stops making insulin. About one in 550 school age children in England have diabetes . The majority have type 1 diabetes. According to hanas (2007) diabtes type 1 usually occurs in children and young people.
The causes of diabetes?
Despite a vast amount of research that has been conducted throughout the world the cause of diabetes is still not known. However, Anas(2007) stated some families carry an extra risk of diabetes. One study based in Oxford looked at the siblings and parents with children with diabetes type 1. Some of these siblings had antibodies to the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and these children had a much higher risk of developing diabetes .
Family history- Anyone with a parent or siling with diabetes type has a risk of developing diabetes.
Genetics-The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing diabtes type 1
Age- Although diabetes can appear at any age. It appears at two noticeable peaks the first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old and the second is in children between 10 and 14years old
How is diabetes diagnosed ? your urine sample will be tested to see whether it contains glucose. Urine doesn't usually contain glucose, but if you have diabetes, some glucose can overflow through the kidneys and into the urine. Your urine may also be tested for ketones (chemicals) that indicate type 1 diabetes.
If your urine contains glucose, a blood test can be used to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes. A sample of your blood will be taken in the morning, before you've had anything to eat, and it will be tested to measure your blood glucose levels.
If your blood glucose levels aren't high enough for your GP to diagnose diabetes, you may need to have an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which is also sometimes referred to as a glucose tolerance test (GTT)
Each child may experience different signs and symptoms. However the most common signs are
Feeling very thirsy
Urinatiting more then usual
Feeling very tired
Short-term complications include hypoglycaemia diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and hyperosmolar
Long term complications may include affectecting major organs in your body, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications.
Medicine and control
The diabetes of the majority is controlled by injections of insulin each day. Most younger children will be on a twice a day a insulin regime of longer acting insuling and it is unlikely that these will need to be given during school hours. However for those who do it may need an adult to administer the injection. Older children may be on multiple injections and others may be controlled on an insulalin pump. Most children can manage their own injections but if doses are required supervision may be required and also a suitable pace to carry it out.
Older children are taught to count their carbohydrates intake and adjust their insulin accordingly . Children with diabetes need to ensure that their blood glucose remain stable and may check their sugar levels by using a small monitor at regularly. Children will be able to do this themselves however young children may need an adult for supervision to carry out the test and the interepret the test results.
Staff who carry out blood glucose test or insulin injections they should be trained by an health professional.
Children with diabetes need to be allowed to eat regulary during the day. This may include eating snacks during class time or prior to exercise .
It’s the schools role to make special arrangemets for pupils with diabetes.
If aa meal or snack is missed the child may experience hypoglycaemic which is when the blood glucose levels fail to flow.