Most of our energy is obtained from carbohydrates and fats. Proteins can be used as an energy source when there is enough for growth and repair. By taking in enough carbohydrates to provide us the energy needed for the day. If too much energy is taken in, it will then be stored as fat. Too much fat can cause health problems such as diabetes, blood pressure, artharitis etc.
1.2- Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load
The glycaemic index, glycaemic index, or GI is the measurement of glucose (blood sugar) level increase from carbohydrate consumption. Foods raise glucose to varying levels. It estimates how much each gram of available carbohydrate (total carbohydrate minus fibre) in a food raises a person's blood glucose level following consumption of the food, relative to consumption of pure glucose.
The glycaemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycaemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose. Glycaemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food, and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycaemic load is based on the glycaemic index (GI). Glycaemic load is defined as the grams of available carbohydrate in the food x the food's GI / 100.
1.3 - Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins are organic molecules that are needed by the body in very small amounts. Many of them interact with important enzymes involved in cell processes. Most of the enzymes we need are taken in from the food we eat.
Mineral Ions | Major Food Source | Function | Calcium | Dairy foods, eggs | Constituent of bones and teeth, needed for blood clotting | Phosphate | Dairy foods, eggs, meat | Constituent of nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, bones and teeth. | Iron | Liver, green vegetables | Constituent of haemoglobin and myoglobin | Sodium | Table salt, dairy foods, meat, eggs, vegetables | Needed for nerve and muscle action |
1.4 - Bacteria in the gut
Vitamin K is essential in humans and most animals. It is needed by the liver to synthesis thrombin. This is an enzyme needed for blood clotting. Humans can't synthesis Vitamin K themselves so they have to obtain it from other sources. There are two forms of Vitamin K, Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 can be obtained from dark green vegetables like broccoli, spinach and also in some oils. Vitamin K2 can be obtained from some form of bacteria in the intestines. One of these bacteria is E. coli.
1.5 - Water
Water is an essential fluid in our body. It is about 60% of our body mass.
An isotonic drink is a solution that has the same water potential as your blood plasma. Water potential measures the energy of water molecules in a solution, and their ability to move freely. The more water there is, the higher the water potential and the more