Questions On Ethics

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1. Why are Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle usually considered to be the founders of Western philosophical ethics? * Because it was their determination to base ethics on reason, rather than on superstition or authority, laid the foundation upon which virtually all philosophers who followed would base their ideas and theories about morality.

2. Why do many people consider Socrates to be a martyr for truth and integrity? * Socrates is considered by many to be a martyr for truth and integrity because of his courage and adherence to traditional beliefs. He was charged with charges of atheism, treason, and corrupting the youth of Athens – all death penalties, just for trying to question tradition. In spite of all the powerful people
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People have the basic freedom to do whatever they want to do. The only limitation on this moral freedom is our duty to extend these dame rights and freedoms to others. Our only moral duty is to avoid violating the right of others.

15. Give and briefly explain the six types of human rights. Explain the differences between positive and negative rights. * Security rights – protect people against murder, injury, and torture. * Due process rights – protect people against arbitrary and excessively harsh punishments and require fair and public trials for those accused of crimes. * Liberty rights – protect people’s freedoms in areas such as belief, expression, association, and movement. * Political rights – protect people’s liberty to participate in politics by assembling, protesting, voting, and serving in public office. * Equality rights – guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law, and freedom from discrimination. * Welfare rights – require that people be provided with education and protected against starvation and severe poverty. * If you have positive right to something, then three things are true. Someone else “owes” you the thing to which you are entitled. You do not have to get it for yourself; someone else is supposed to get it for you. Therefore, if you do not obtain this right to which you are entitled, someone has wronged you. We refer to these as positive rights