Questions On Foodborne Illnesses

Submitted By sergioorpineda
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Choose one of the following foodborne illnesses to complete this assignment:

Clostridium perfringens
Norovirus (formerly Norwalk virus)
Hepatitis A
Giardia or amoeba parasites

Write a 125- to 150-word response to each of the following questions:

What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite.

Salmonella is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacilli that cause a diarrheal illness. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from feces of humans or animals to other humans or animals. The salmonella family includes over 2,300 serotypes of bacteria which are one-celled organisms too small to be seen by the human eye. Two serotypes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are the most common in the United States and account for half of all human infections.

How is this infectious agent transmitted through food or water?

Salmonella is usually transmitted to humans by eating foods contaminated with animal feces. Salmonella present on raw meat and poultry could survive if the product is not cooked to a safe minimum internal temperature, as measured with a food thermometer. Salmonella can also cause foodborne illness (salmonellosis) through cross-contamination, e.g., when juices from raw meat or poultry come in contact with ready-to-eat foods, such as salads.

Food may also become contaminated by the unwashed hands of an infected person handling food who might or might not be showing symptoms. Salmonella can also be found in the feces of some pets, especially those with diarrhea. People can become infected if they do not wash their hands after contact with these feces.

What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States?

Tainted Turkey Is Likely Source of Latest Salmonella Outbreak
An antibiotic-resistant strain of salmonella has made its way into at least 26 states, killing one person and sickening 77. On Wednesday, U.S. health officials were investigating the source of the outbreak, which they believe is tied to tainted ground turkey. The probe so far points to a single facility—the location of which is being withheld—that has produced three of four salmonella-infected ground turkey samples taken from four stores. The salmonella strain involved worries officials because it is resistant to common antibiotics, raising the risk of hospitalization and treatment failure, the CDC says. Symptoms of salmonella infection include: diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Although most people recover without treatment, the infection can be deadly, especially if treatment fails and it's allowed to spread from the intestines to the bloodstream. Older adults, infants, and those with weakened immune systems are especially vulnerable. (U.S.News & World Report)

What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any?

Although in some people salmonellosis could asymptomatic, most people experience diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever within 8 to 72 hours after the contaminated food was eaten. Additional symptoms may be chills, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms usually