Essay on Reformation: Protestant Reformation and holy Roman Emperor

Submitted By mcichael
Words: 2300
Pages: 10

Chapter 3: The Two Reformations

---The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance was only in Italy, N. Europe enjoyed very little economic or cultural vitality
1460- Humanism began to influence scholars in Northern Europe

Northern art and humanism art emphasized decorative detail, and extreme realism, and no nudes
Albrecht Durer was drawn to Italy to learn how to depict human form. Went to Venice 2 times to study Italian painters(most famous northern renaissance painter)
Spread of cultural values prepared a way for Reformation, like humanistic values of morality, which they attacked the church with

Erasmus’s Humanistic Critique of the Church
Desiderius Erasmus: 1469-1536 (contributed most to growth of Renaissance Humanism in NORTH)- Orphaned in Rotterdam, became a priest who was obsessed with cleanliness and was determined to teach the church a moral purity

---The roots of the Reformation
Emergence of Sovereign states caused them to loose power- due to creation of national churches
Religious movements rejected papal authority
As the church tried to protect its authority, it seemed more corrupt then ever

The Great Schism (1378- 1417)
Struggle between France and Pope put papal authority in jeopardy, because France taxed the Churches Land while Boniface was in power
After Pope Boniface died, Clement V was elected pope and moved the papal center to Avignon in France, where they were under direct rule of the French king. It was then moved back to Rome by Clement XI, and when he died the elected Pope Urban VI. They then elected another pope, Clement VII who moved papacy to Avignon. These popes fought over ruler allegiance. They then elected a 3rd pope at the Council of Pisa.
The Great Schism led sovereign states to create national Churches

Heretical and Spiritual Movements
The Three popes led to dissatisfaction in the organization of the church
William of Occam- rejected scholastic rationalism and was a nominalist: “Mankind cant understand God thru reason”
John Wyclif- Questioned popes authority, claimed unworthy popes did not have to be obeyed, rejected transubstantiation, de-emphasized rituals; stressed the role of faith in salvation. Lollards carried on his work after his death
Jan Hus - Used John’s teaching, loudly criticized worldliness of clerics, rejected Pope

The Challenge of Conciliarism to Papal Authority
Rose in response to Great Schism and demands for Reform
The council of Constance was called to resolve Great Schism (to limit and define papal authority: First thing it did was condemn Jan Hus for Heresy but he created Utraquist church-(bread and wine) Second, got rid of all 3 popes and elected Martin V
Councils got together to debated faith, organization of church, and papal authority

Clerical Abuses and Indulgences
Indulgences were attacked most- reduced ones or a families time in purgatory (began during crusades to pay debts and raised revenue for church)
Simony- Sale of church offices to those unqualified
Dispensation- exempt from canon law and paid no taxes
Nepotism- Awarding of posts to friends and family
Penance- Once good, then became into interrogation of faithful

Martin Luther
Born to prosperous peasants- went to law school but decided to be a monk
Was concerned with his own sin; came to the verse Romans 1:17- FAITH brought shalvation, good works weren’t enough
His goal was to reform church; free German states from strict religious beliefs
Posted 95 these on door of church in 1517, denouncing the sale of indulgences
Luther was then excommunicated and granted a proper hearing- And by the Edict of Worms was placed under “ban of the empire” in 1521- but reformation was starting

---Social Background of the Reformation
Martin Luther and other preachers made people reconsider their religious beliefs throughout the German states

Urban Centers of Reform
Free cities in the German states, each having their own elite of prosperous leaders, were fertile grounds for