2. Lutheranism and Calvinism differed from Catholicism in that they were focused on a more personal relationship between God and an individual. They offered more of a “direct connection” by allowing followers to interpret the Bible for themselves whereas Catholic priests would interpret the Bible for the followers. The Catholics responded to the Protestant Reformation by changing its own practices. They changed the discipline and education of the clergy and also clarified Catholic theology.
3. Charles V and his Christian allies tried to stop the rise of the Ottomans and Muslims. This failed because of eastern Europe's support of Muslims and opposition of Charles V's defense of the Catholic doctrine in the Imperial diet. Spain, France and England used religion to unite and centralize their states. They boosted royal authority by limiting the power of the church.
4. European classes had very high contrasts of wealth. The bourgeosie were a new class of urban dwellers who specialized in manufacturing, finance and trade. Peasants lived in rough conditions because of the constant warfare, economic, and environmental problems. Their diet was improved by the introduction of American crops like potatoes and corn. Many moved to the urban areas and became beggars, prostitutes and criminals.
5. Women in Europe lived in patriarchal societies where they were considered inferior to men. Women in the elite class lived much better than those in lower classes. Most women were…