DNA and Protein Synthesis 1. The Swiss biochemist who in 1868 discovered DNA was a) Friedrich Miescher. b) Robert Feulgen. c) Alfred Mirsky. d) Max Delbruck. 2. The experiment in which it was shown that DNA is the genetic material in bacteriophages is the a) Meselson-Stahl experiment. b) Franklin-Wilkins experiment. c) Hershey-Chase experiment. d) Delbruck-Luria experiment. 3. The x-ray crystallography studies of Franklin and Wilkins showed that a) DNA contains only four kinds of nucleotides. b) DNA is a helix of uniform diameter. c) the amount of adenine found in DNA equals the amount of thymine. d) the same base-pairing rules apply to all species. 4. Genetic information in a DNA molecule is coded in the a) sequence of nucleotides. b) base pairings. c) proportion of each base present. d) the turning pattern of the helix. 5. The two strands of a double helix model of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between a) sugar and phosphate groups. b) sugars and nitrogenous bases. c) phosphate groups and nitrogenous bases. d) nitrogenous bases. 6. In a single strand from a DNA molecule, nucleotides are linked by covalent bonds between a) sugar and phosphate groups. b) sugars and nitrogenous bases. c) phosphate groups and nitrogenous bases. d) nitrogenous bases. 7. The number of cytosine bases in a DNA molecule a) is equal to the number of uracil bases. b) is equal to the number of guanine bases. c) is equal to the number of adenine bases. d) cannot be predicted. 8. If the sequence of bases along one side of a DNA molecule is AAGCT, then the complementary sequence of bases on the other side of the DNA molecule is a) AAGCT b) GGTAC c) UUCGA d) TTCGA 9. Which of the following is characteristic of DNA replication? a) Each of the two newly formed molecules contains one newly constructed sugar-phosphate strand and one sugar-phosphate strand from the original molecule. b) One of the newly formed molecules contains two newly constructed sugar-phosphate strands, and the other contains both sugar-phosphate strands from the original molecule. c) Both of the newly formed molecules contain newly constructed sugar-phosphate strands. d) Both of the newly formed molecules contain uracil instead of thymine. 10. The basic monomers used in DNA replication are a) glucose. b) DNA nucleotides. c) RNA nucleotides. d) amino acids. 11. The exact replication of DNA is possible due to a) the genetic code. b) mitosis. c) the base-pairing rules. d) the fact that the DNA molecules are enclosed within a nuclear membrane. 12. Which enzyme catalyses the synthesis of a new strand for a DNA molecule, by linking nucleotides to the developing strand? a) DNA ligase b) DNA polymerase c) single-strand binding proteins d) Topoisomerase 13. In DNA replication, the helix is unwound by which type of enzyme? a) Topoisomerase b) Primase c) DNA polymerase d) Helicase 14. The "recipe" for constructing each enzyme is located within the a) DNA molecules. b) ribosomes. c) polysomes. d) ribosomal RNA molecules. 15. The metabolic activity of the different cell types within an organism varies because of differences in the kinds of a) genes in each cell. b) ribosomes in each cell. c) enzymes in each cell. d) nucleoli in each cell. 16 Transcription is the transfer of the genetic code from a DNA molecule to a a) RNA molecule. b) sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule. c) second DNA molecule d) ribosomal subunit 17. After transcription takes place, the DNA molecule a) moves to a ribosome. b) disintegrates into its component nucleotides. c) replicates itself. d) reassociates to form its original structure. 18. The number of cytosine bases in a mRNA molecule a) is equal to the number of uracil bases. b) is equal to the number of thymine bases.
Unit 8 Study Guide
1. What is DNA short for and what is its definition?
Deoxyribonucleic acid the genetic material of a cell
2. What DNA discovery happened in 1950 and who discovered it?
Erwin Chargaff-that the amount of guanine always equals the amount of cytosine, and the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, these are known as Chargaff’s rules
3. What DNA discovery happened in 1951 and who discovered it?
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins when an x-ray passes through…
made up of proteins(60%) called histones and DNA(40%) the reacae was on to
determine which of these organic molecules actually determined or controlled the heritable traits
passed from generation to generation. finally concluded to be dna based on the hershey chase
blender experiment (though mccarty macleod actually determined it first but the scientific
community didn't believe it could be dna). next the race was on to determine the exact structure of
dna which was determined by watson and crick in…
Nucleotide – monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen base
Double helix – model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
Base pairing rules – rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)
Replication – process by which DNA is copied
DNA polymerase – enzyme that makes bonds…
Genetics = the study of all aspects of genes and transmission of DNA
genes being the fundamental units of biological information
composed of DNA molecules (deoxyribonucleic acid)
* 1. classical the study of chromosomal theory
began with Mendel’s observation of pea plant (Pisum sativum)
the “either/or” traits
* 2. molecular study of genetic materials (DNA & RNA)
including structure, replication, mutation, & expression
Waston-Crick show that a DNA molecule exists in the form of a three-dimensional double helix which consists of two chains are antiparallel with four different types of nitrogen bases. Their observation that two complementary strands linked in a directional chain: beta N-glycosidic bond connects the deoxyribonucleic acid to the nitrogen base, a phosphodiester bond connects one nucleotide to the next and the sugar phosphate backbone is identical in every DNA molecule. The DNA molecule is made of four…
structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules —although increasingly processes rather than individual molecules are the main focus. Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Today the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise…
provider to brain and muscles and thus directly or indirectly involved in every biological processing of life. Apart from numerous life functioning role, enzymes are also used in industry-oriented procedure such as for drug delivery in biomedical research, production of biodiesel in energy sector, production of jams and syrups in food industry, treatment of sewage in waste management…
Biology SOL Review - 2012
Observation: -Using your senses to explore life &
Inference: -Logical interpretation based on background knowledge and experience.
All science research starts with a question that you can test.
Steps to Designing and Conducting
Problem: -The question you are trying to answer
Hypothesis: -A possible explanation for an observation
*Must be testable
*Always should be an "IF, then" statement…
* Lumen is the inside of any sac-like structure
* G apparatus Cis (“this”)side faces nucleus; Trans (“across”) side faces towards plasma membrane
* Catalase - Enzyme in peroxisomes a Protein made up of 4 subunits (proteins made up of amino acids)
* Catalase can convert 10^6 molecules of H202 to H20 per second! (H202 is also known as peroxide)
* Lysosome= Interior is acidic - pH ~ 5.0; enzymes optimized to work at acidic pH
* Vacuoles take up to 80% of space