November 25, 2014
Quiz 4: Part II.
The traditional arguments for God existence are the ontological argument and the cosmological argument. Begin with two out of five ways of the cosmological argument. The very first one is the way of Motion. According to Aquinas information, the motion is certain, and evident to our sense, that in the world some things are in motion. Now whatever is moved is moved by another, for nothing can be moved except it is in potentiality to that towards which it is moved; whereas a thing moves inasmuch as it is in act. For motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality. But nothing can be moved from a state of potentiality to actuality, except by something in a state of actuality. It is therefore impossible that in the same respect and in the same way a thing should be both mover and moved i.e. that it should move itself. Therefore, whatever is moved must be moved by another. If that by which it is moved must itself be moved, then this also needs to be moved by another, and that by another again. But this cannot go on to infinity, because then there would be no first mover, and consequently, no other mover, seeing as subsequent movers move only inasmuch as they are moved by the first mover; as the staff moves only because it is moved by the hand. Therefore it is necessary to arrive at the first mover, moved by no other; and this everyone understands to be God. Everything in the world changes. Aquinas' 'proof' here needs to be set against the background of Aristotle's discussion of astronomy. Aristotle argued that planetary motion, which he believed caused the seasons to change, required an unmoved mover who would maintain the order of things in the midst of this. Therefore, Aquinas used this notion to speak of the sustaining work of God. God made sure the world and the universe remained the same, but was also behind the changes which led to the years passing by without any problem. Also the sense that God created the world as a self-operating system is what motivated many Christians throughout the middle Ages to investigate nature. Moving on to the second argument id the way of causation. Basically, this is the sequence of causes which make up this universe must have a First Cause. We also known this second way is from the nature of efficient cause. In the world of sensible things we find there is an order of efficient causes. There is no case known in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for so it would be prior to itself, which is impossible. Now in efficient causes it is not possible to go on to infinity, because in all efficient causes following in order, the first is the cause of the intermediate cause, whether the intermediate cause be several, or one only. Now to take away the cause is to take away the effect. Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, or intermediate, cause. But if in efficient causes it is possible to go on to infinity, there will be no first efficient cause, neither will there be an ultimate effect, nor any intermediate efficient causes; all of which is plainly false. Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God. The next argument for God existence is the ontological argument with St. Anselm is all about a necessary truth of God that such a being exists. Anselm's ontological argument purports to be an a priori proof of God's existence. Anselm starts with premises that do not depend on experience for their justification and then proceeds by purely logical means to the conclusion that God exists He claim that, “If God exist, then he necessarily exists. It is at least possible for God to exist. God exists in reality.” When we look for the deeply explanation of what Anselm try to convey people, we found “If God exists, He exists necessarily” that’s the Evidential justification; God is defined as