Sommer, R. & Sommer B.; (2002). A practical Guide to Behavioral Research: Tools and Techniques. New York: oxford University Press.
Dickinson, J., & Marsden, J.; (2009). Informing Design (1st ed.). Fairchild Pubns.
Creswell, J.; (2008). Research Design (3rd ed.). Sage publications.
Hnington, B & Martin, B.; (2012). Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions. Rockport Publishers
1. Behavior Mapping:
“Behavioral mapping is a research method where the author uses annotated maps, videos, plans, etc. to systematically document location-based observations of human activity”. (Hanington & Martin, 2012). Behavior mapping is used to take note of already noticeable characteristics and activities like age, gender, or different activities to mention a few. Using observation as a data collection tool can be handy because it gives us a “holistic impression” because it is usually developed in real time manner. Behavior mapping can be divided in 2 different methods: Place- center mapping and individual center mapping.
Place –center mapping is based entirely on observation of the research’s participants at a specific location. (Sommer & Sommer, 2002). Usually researchers create their own diagrams that could affect behaviors to properly estimate the value of a space’s use. While Individual- center mapping focuses on activities exclusive of the individual being examined. This study can use interviews among others to help understand more about behaviors. In other words, Individual- Center mapping focuses on learning about the actual person; for example social interaction and behavior; however, both mappings can be used combine.
To give an example of place-center mapping, I am going to use my group project from design 2 studio. We had to design an office area for FIU ONLINE employees witch were young workers around their 20s. In the data collection process we decide to visit this office to see how they behavior was. We notice that they constantly stood up and had small informal meeting in the hall ways interrupting the circulation of other employees. This helps us to suggest some small open areas where they can gather and have those short informal meeting in a relaxed manner without disturbing the circulation path.
2. Evidence - Based Design
Evidence – based design, as it names implies, it is not a design based on intuition or on personal experience, for the contrary is based on actual research. It is commonly associated and use in the health care filed; however, it can be used in other fields as well. The main point of evidence – based Design is to approach the problem unbiased and to use research methods and actual facts to influence the design decision. Some of the methods used are literature reviews, case studies, etc. However; design is a person-center discipline, thus it also uses interviews, questionnaires, surveys, or any type of collection data. (Hanington & Martin, 2012).
We can use past cases or prior examples to evaluate what went wrong of what was successful in an actual design. For example; in an evidence-based design approaches for a spa facility, we can start by increasing our understanding of wellness and the importance of relaxation to reduce the stress. In order to collect evidence based information, the methodology used in this case would be the review of literature on wellness, plan reviews of existing spas, and maybe some interviews of actual users to see the physical environment impact on them. After that we will analyze the evidence and results in order to create an effective design.
3. Focus Groups:
As it name implies “focus groups” is a small group of people that has passed through a rigorous scrutiny before being selected for the study. This data collection method is lead under the guidance of an experience moderator, and it is usually