Research Paper

Submitted By lys_gorman
Words: 1146
Pages: 5

Evolution has been a conflict of interest for many years; philosophers, scientist, and even celebrities have influenced it. Evolution and Darwinism go hand and hand with each other. Evolution is based on the idea that a big bang occurred and the Earth was then created. Darwinism on the other hand believes that the Earth was created by a higher being, but that higher being took the back seat while natural selection began. Michael Ruse uses his article, Does Life Have a Purpose, as a tool to make people think about the way that the world operates. Ruse uses many different tools to help get his point across to the audience. In Does Life Have a Purpose, Michael Ruse uses selection of audience, technical language, and ethos to influence the readers.
The article talks about the ideas of evolution and Darwinism as ways the world came about and still operates today. Ruse believes that there are more answers to life than that of just being influenced by one greater being. Ruse also talks about teleology, which is the idea that as the end gets closer ideas begins to have a purpose. Philosophers believe that whether or not there is a god out there that there is a reason for everything. Ruse discusses these things through the article. He speaks on topics of how organisms and life are just like machines. All things that have been created have occurred because of the mechanism. For example in the article he talks about the purpose of the clock “the clock exists in order to tell the time just as much as the eye exists in order to see” (Ruse, p. 4 par. 3).
In order to get his point across, Ruse uses selection of audience; the audience that he is writing his paper for is the general audience. He is directing his paper towards the general audience because this idea isn’t just for the scholarly. The idea of evolution and Darwinism are meant for everyone to be heard. He also writes for a general audience because many people find the ideas of Darwinism and evolution to be interesting topics. Ruse writes with the purpose of explaining that everything eventually adapts into a purpose. The direction taken for the audience is genius because it helps to get them interested.
Michael Ruse does not just appeal to the simple reader, but he also uses terms that help it feel more scholarly. Thus, Ruse uses more formal language. Although his writing is intended for the general audience uses formal language to connect better. Ruse talks about more scientifically based information, so he needs touse formal writing. The use of formal writing and technical language helps him to sound more convincing to the audience. Some of the words that he tends to repeat are: organism, machine, purpose, and teleology. These words are used throughout to help emphasize the point that he is trying to achieve. He uses the word “purpose” a lot throughout, in order to, show that everything he is discussing the science, the machines, and religion based, all have a purpose. Ruse also uses direct quotations from some of the great philosophers. He uses quotes from Newton, Aristotle, and Charles Darwin to help support that claims that he makes throughout his article. When he gets to the start of newer ideas, Ruse adds in larger fonts. Ruse uses these in order to support supports important ideas in the section. For example he enlarged the phrase, ‘’Now, however, the governing metaphors of nature change. No longer did scientists think in terms of organisms: they thought in terms of machines” (Ruse, p. 4 par. 3). Ruse enlarged this part because it helps support his overall idea that scientists think in the mindset of how machines work. Thus being that they have to have a reason for why something works rather than just believing that it could actually happen. The enlargements of the phrases also help prepare the reader for the upcoming topic.
Finally, in Does Life Have a Purpose uses ethos to drag in the audience. Ruse used the pull of a more scientific view the end of the