Reflection Paper #3 1. Deviance - is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society. Deviance can be criminal or non-criminal. * Today, Americans consider such activities as alcoholism, excessive gambling, being nude in public places, playing with fire, stealing, lying, refusing to bathe, purchasing the services of prostitutes, and cross-dressing—to name only a few—as deviant. People who engage in deviant behavior are referred to as deviants. The concept of deviance is complex because norms vary considerably across groups, times, and places. What one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant. For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. In America, the thought of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation as it is known in the United States, is unthinkable; female genital mutilation, usually done in unsanitary conditions often leads to infections, and is done as a blatantly oppressive tactic to prevent women from having sexual pleasure.
2. Stigma - In modern sociology, the word stigma is used to refer to the concept of people being "marked" as different, usually in a negative way, based upon some characteristic which separates them from the rest of society.
3. White collar crime - a criminal act that arises from opportunities created by a person’s social position, especially their occupation. White-collar crime is significant sociologically because of the perception that white-collar criminals tend to be middle- and upper-middle-class and because of a class bias in the criminal justice system, their crimes are generally viewed as less serious and less deserving of punishment.
* Embezzlement is a prime example of white collar crime. It is the fraudulent conversion of another's property (cash, goods, credit/debit accounts) by a person who is in a position of trust, such as an agent or employee of a company or organization. 4. Victimless Crime - is any activity which does not physically harm a person