research paper

Submitted By maye_day
Words: 1408
Pages: 6

ODD is a condition in which a child displays an ongoing pattern of uncooperative, defiant, hostile, and annoying behavior toward people in authority. The child's behavior often disrupts the child's normal daily activities, including activities within the family and at school. Many children and teens with ODD also have other behavioral problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, mood disorders (such as depression), and anxiety disorders. Some children with ODD go on to develop a more serious behavior disorder called conduct disorder. The exact cause of ODD is not known, but it is believed that a combination of biological, genetic, and environmental factors may contribute to the condition. Biological: Some studies suggest that defects in or injuries to certain areas of the brain can lead to serious behavioral problems in children. In addition, ODD has been linked to abnormal functioning of certain types of brain chemicals, or neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other. If these chemicals are not working properly, messages may not make it through the brain correctly, leading to symptoms of ODD, and other mental illnesses. Further, many children and teens with ODD also have other mental illnesses, such as ADHD, learning disorders, depression, or an anxiety disorder, which may contribute to their behavior problems. Genetics: Many children and teens with ODD have close family members with mental illnesses, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. This suggests that a vulnerability to develop ODD may be inherited. Environmental: Factors such as a dysfunctional family life, a family history of mental illnesses and/or substance abuse, and inconsistent discipline by parents may contribute to the development of behavior disorders. (Goldberg, 2014)

Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Young Children: Heterotypic Continuity with Anxiety and Depression.
There are distinct dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder that have been associated with symptoms of other disorders. This study compared the heterotypic continuity of a two-factor model and the three-factor model incorporated into DSM-5 with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participants were a diverse community sample of 796 children assessed between the ages of 4 to 6 years old. Symptoms were assessed with the dimensional scales of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Young Child version and the Child Symptom Inventory. Data was collected as part of a longitudinal study of risk factors for the development of psychopathology across an important developmental transitional period. It was found that when initial levels of anxiety were included in the model, the associations of the ODD dimensions with subsequent anxiety were much weaker. Finding demonstrating relationships between early ODD dimensions and later anxiety need to be interpreted extremely cautiously, the bulk of these relationships disappear when controlling for initial levels of anxiety.
Parents were approached by research assistants at pediatric offices and preschools and given study information. Subsequently, a home visit was arranged at which study measures were completed. Parents were re-contacted 1 and 2 years after the initial visit for another visit during which the DISC-YA and study questionnaire were re-administered.
At the age 4 and 5, there is little evidence that either the Pitt-2 ODDNA or ODDB factors make a significant, direct contribution to subsequent anxiety that is independent of one another and initial anxiety level. Also at the age of 6 the ODDB shows no relationship to depression.
Further research is needed to examine the heterotypic continuity of ODD dimensions. This study provides support for such research to take place. Further studies are needed to examine the bi-directional influences off ODD symptoms dimensions, and anxiety and depression