Research Paper On Copd

Submitted By Chasity98
Words: 572
Pages: 3

The Respiratory System is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expeling carbon dioxide, a waste product, out of the body as we breath. The trachea filters air that's inhaled and branches off into the bronchi which carrys oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm, the muscle below the lungs, controls breathing. When a person takes a breath the diaphragm flattens out and pulls forward making space for the lungs and allowing oxygen in. During exhalation the diaphragm expands and forces carbon dioxide out of the lungs and body. The primary organ of the respiratory system is the lungs which is responsible for gas exchange within the body. The exchange of these gases take place in the alveolar capillary membrane. For effective gas exchange to occur ventilatin, perfusion, and diffusion must occur simultaneously at the alveolar capillary. Problems with any of these can result in hypoxemia or hypercarbia.

One of the most common lung diseases is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD is a disease that makes it hard to breathe that gradually worsens over time. There are two main forms of COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, most patients present a combination of both of these obstruction processes. In chronic bronchitis changes in the airway include chronic inflammation and swelling of the bronchial mucosa that results in scarring, increased mucous membrane, and increased bronchial wall thickness. With Emphysema there's a destructive change of the alveolar walls without fibrosis and abnormal enlargement of the distal air sacs. The leading cause of COPD is cigrette smoking, other causes include long term exposure to irritants such as air pollution, certain gases or fumes, and in rare cases, nonsmokers who lack a protein called alpha-1 antirypsin can develop emphysema. Because bronchitits and emphysema are most frequently seen in combination treatment are similar. The overall goals are to stop the progression of the disease, return the patient to optimal respiratory function, and return the patient to usual activities of daily living. Treatment includes medications such as short-acting B2 agonists and inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilators, cough suppressants, and antimicrobial agents for infections. Low dose oxygen is recommended for patients with low PaO2 levels. Lifestyle changes include cessation of smoking, diet such as watching salt intake, smaller more freguent meals instead of