Research Paper On Tourette Syndrome

Submitted By rebeccadelira
Words: 2181
Pages: 9

Research Paper
Specific Learning Disability:
Tourette Syndrome

Rebecca De Lira
Child 68
11/26/14

I. Introduction
Specific Learning Disability involves difficulties learning and using academic skills. It may affect the ability to listen, think, read, write, spell, or do mathematical equations. This disorder is an umbrella to many subcategories such as ADD, ADHD, dyslexia, etc. The reason I chose this disability is because one of my cousins falls into this disability. He has had a moderate case of Tourette syndrome since he was ___ years old. Tourette syndrome varies from simply a rhythmic blinking to as serious as needing to shout words uncontrollably. My cousin gets these tics where he blinks multiple times and gets a twitch-like head and hand movement. He recently developed this disorder so it really got me interested in understanding it better.
II. Information
A. Definition
A specific learning disability, as defined in Section 1401(30) of Title 20 of the United States Code, means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or perform mathematical calculations. The term "specific learning disability" includes conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. That term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of intellectual disabilities, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
B. Demographic and Statistical Data
On the following page there will be statistical data from 2012 to 2013. The chart demonstrates the number of students with a Specific Learning Disability, which would include Tourette syndrome, in California public schools from birth to 22 years of age. The amount of children with this particular disability slowly but, significantly increase from ages 3 to 6.

Special Education Enrollment by Age and Disability Statewide Report
California 2012-21013
Age
Specific Learning Disability
0
0
1
*
2
*
3
57
4
107
5
527
6
2,752
7
6,829
8
13,222
9
19,390
10
23,447
11
26,673
12
28,417
13
28,331
14
28,356
15
27,594
16
28,163
17
27,903
18
13,915
19
2,620
20
723
21
332
22
49
Source: California Department of Education
* Denotes value under 11

The next statistical data is from 2012 to 2013. The chart demonstrates the number of students with a Specific Learning Disability, which would include Tourette syndrome, in California public schools from ages 10 to 20 yrs. However, this chart illustrates it is most prevalent between the ages of 12 to 14 yrs.
Source: California Department of Education

C. Historical Information
Tourette syndrome is said to be first described as a medical condition in the 19th century although, there were many previous encounters before this that were not diagnosed. In 1885, French Georges Gilles de la Tourette published a two part article “Study of a Nervous Affliction,” that summarized his clinical observations of patients with tics (Keene, 2001). Although, he wasn’t the first physician to label tic disorders his paper was so influential that no one questioned the condition named in his honor. Some of the beliefs were not completely correct for instance, he believed that a Tourette syndrome symptom, coprolalia – unwanted cursing, progressed over time. There was no effective treatment for Tourette syndrome in the early 19th century and there weren’t any known causes to the disorder. Some of the ideas for the cause where by brain infection or that in ran in the families. This idea was later replaced by Sigmund Freud in the early 20th century. He believed it was evidence of either compulsive masturbation or a replacement for the urge to masturbate. Today, researchers have proven that Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological condition, and much…