American InterContinental University
March 27, 2013
As humans reasoning and logic is used on a daily basis. It is used in the learning environment when an idea about a topic is presented and then steps are taken to narrow it down a more exact fact that can put to a test. This paper will explore research theories and how they differ from one another explore whether or not a particular theory is more acceptable over another. The exploration on the differences or likeness between theory and hypothesis and will also discuss what variables are and why they are a key aspect of theoretical schemes. The main focus of research was the use of the Internet and the use of scholarly textbooks in the preparation of this paper.
Research Theories Science is an initiative committed to “searching”. It does not matter what one wants to search for or know about, the likelihood of having options to get the desired information is endless. Ideas that are exploratory in nature that attempt to explain how something can be or at least an idea on a systematic set of principles can be viewed as a theory. Theory can be best described as a methodical account for the experimental facts and rules that relay to a certain part of life such as crime causation. (Babbie & Maxfield, 2011). Theory is also defined as a group of conjectures, suggestions, or established facts that attempt to give believable or logical reasons for cause-and-effects connections among a group of viewed observable fact. (Theory, 2013).
It is at the time a theory has been developed it can give general data about social life that will later direct research. For example, the Rational Choice Theory states that people make a choice to offend when the advantages overshadow the potential punishment for breaking the law. In this theory criminal offenses will reduce when security is tighter or awareness is prevalent, advantages are not as great and the punishment of the crime is stiffer (Schmalleger, 2009, p. 139).
From the earliest times of Greek philosophy and science projects, deductive reasoning has been thought of as the highest kind of human reasoning (Luria, 1974). Deductive reasoning occurs when a researcher works from more general data to more specific. Deductive reasoning starts from an established fact and then creates a specific conclusion from that generalization. See Figure 1. An example of deductive reasoning is each day I work out before going to work at 6 o’clock in the morning. Each day, I work out for 30 minutes to finish at 6:30 am. Therefore, if I start my work out at 6 am I will complete my work out by 6:30. (Babbie & Maxfield, 2011, p. 56). To bring truth to deductive reasoning there are many forms of credible deductive debates, for example modus ponens (If p then q; p; therefore q). Credit deductive debates sustain truth, meaning that if the premises are true then the ending result in true. This theory has been deeply researched in psychology, philosophy, and cognitive science (Ayalon & Even, 2008).
The inductive theory on the other hand, gravitates away from the detailed to the broad, from the examination of an instance where generalizations of a larger category for the same instance. See Figure 2. An example of a person using inductive reasoning would believe that all bears are black after observing black bears. In this reasoning just because the premise shows evidence of truth it does not guarantee truth in the instance. Even though inductive reasoning is utilized most in science it is not always reasonably credible due to the fact that it is not always precise to accept that a basic concept is right (Babbie & Maxfield, 2011, p. 56).
After the completion of his PH.D in 1961, Barney Glaser was scouted out by Anselm Strauss to join his research team. The two worked on research on the experience of dying. It was at this time