As soon as Lincoln was elected president, the states of the Deep South seceded from the Union. First to leave was South Carolina, which had been the front runner for southern nationalism as seen in the nulliﬁcation crisis. Before Lincoln even assumed the presidency, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana had joined South Carolina in the Confederacy (the Deep South). After the battle at Fort Sumter, which set off the war, the states of the upper South also seceded.
Start of the war
Believes that no state has the right to secede, but the federal government has no authority to stop them.
Proposed by John Crittenden from Kentucky. He suggests an amendment to guarantee slavery south of the 36 30' line from the Missouri Compromise for all future territory. He is hoping that an amendment will appeal to the South because it is permanent and cannot be changed unlike a law. However, the Republicans control the legislature, and they reject it because their fundamental philosophy is no expansion of slavery.
When the South asks Buchanan for Fort Sumter, the president refuses, so the Confederacy opens ﬁre on a supply ship heading to the fort. However, this is not the beginning of the war since there was no return of ﬁre. When Lincoln becomes president, he is more afﬁrmative than Buchanan in his stance that the Union must remain intact, even if that means war. He soon realized that Fort Sumter needed food to survive, so he told South Carolina not to ﬁre on their ship ﬁlled strictly with supplies, no troops. With this, the South was given two options: allow the food and give in or stop it and start the war. They decide that they would rather ﬁght than appear cowardly. On April 1861, the war begins at Fort Sumter.
P.G.T. Beauregard (C): he is commander of forces for the Confederacy in Charleston. He is given orders to take the fort located on an island.
Robert Anderson (U): he is the leader of the small amount of men in Fort Sumter. He ﬁnally agrees to surrender after Beauregard bombs them for days.
Abner Doubleday (U): he begins the war as being the man who shot the ﬁrst cannon ﬁring back at the Confederates
Charles Beard 1920s: The Civil War was the second American Revolution. He believes slavery was more of an economic institution, a labor system, rather than a social or cultural one, and it had nothing to do with the war. He believed the Civil War was caused because northern businessmen wanted to dominate society, forming the Republican Party. They were trying to take power away from the Democrats, who had previously dominated politics, much like the power struggle that existed in the American Revolution.
James Randall 1960s-1970s:
The Civil War was a result of the Blundering Generation. He believes the North and South had no differences that would require war, saying that slavery was crumbling and would have died out with some time. The Civil War could only be accounted for by the political ineptitude of leaders in the government.
North’s advantages the North has more:
Railroad mileage (plus the tracks in the South were poorly connected)
The North produces:
32 x ﬁrearms
20 x pig iron
13 x sheet iron
11 x ships
30 x shoes/boots
24 x locomotives
The South must import their supplies mostly from European countries.
North v. South Advantages:
has more of everything (must invade - but they can afford it), established government South: military background (military schools), ﬁght is defensive (less vulnerable - do not have to invade), didn't have to win (just out last the Union), home ﬁeld advantage
Theories of War
Ex parte Merryman:
A writ issued by Chief Justice Taney requiring Lincoln to release an imprisoned Maryland secessionist leader (Lincoln had jailed him and deﬁed habeas corpus). Lincoln…