CHAPTERS 23, 24
1. Emergence of “mass society”
New urban and industrial world created by the rapid economic changes of the 19th century led to the emergence by the 19th century. Mass society meant improvements for the lower classes, who benefited from the extension of visiting rights, a better standard of living and education. Brought mass leisure. New society arises from new technology and people feel they have arrived at the pinnacle of scientific understanding.
2. The national state
Became the focus of the Europeans’ lives. The growth of the middle class had led to the triumph of liberal practices: constitutional governments, parliaments, and principles of equality.
3. The “Second Industrial Revolution” – steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum led the way to new industrial frontiers. (First IR had textiles, railroads, iron, & coal)
a. New products
1st major change= substitution of steel for iron new methods of rolling and shaping steel
Great Britain, France, Germany, and Belgium = 125,0000 (1860)
(1913)= 32 million tons
A change in the method of making soda enabled France and Germany to take the lead in producing the alkalies used in the textile, soap, and paper industries.
German firms had cornered
90 percent of the market for dye stuffs and also led in the development of photographic plates and film.
b. New energy sources
Thomas Edison & Joseph Swan- light bulb
Alexander Graham Bell- telephone
Gugielmo Macrconi- radio waves across the Atlantic
Electric railway in Berlin
c. New industrial frontiers
d. Employment opportunities for women
4. Development of the automobile
G. Dainter- key inventor of the automobile
5. Cartels gnp that works together to fix production. Control crises
6. Growth of Germany as an industrial power
German production surpasses British 1. Reasons why : In steel by 1910, In organic chemical compounds by 1900, Because it was hard for Britain to shift gears after dominating first industrialization. Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of Europe.
Union of science and technology
Factories with over 1,00 employees rose from 205,000 to 879,000.
Superiority evident in organic chemicals and electrical equipment, and increasingly apparent in its ever-greater share of worldwide trade.
Could build the latest and most efficient industrial plant.
7. Free trade and imposition of steep protective tariffs
increased competition for foreign markets and the growing importance of domestic demand led to a reaction against free trade and to many industrial and political leaders, protective tariffs guaranteed domestic markets for the products of their own industries. Which, after a decade of experimentation with free trade in the 1860s, the Europeans returned to tariff protection. 1st to follow this was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, then Russia, Germany, Italy, U.S., and then France. Great Britain, Denmark, and the Netherlands refused to follow suit.
8. Chief exports
Nitrates? (not sure if I heard correctly)
9. Socialism and socialist movements in the nineteenth century
10. Edouard Bernstein
11. Wrote Evolutionary Socialism, stated that socialism could best be achieved by democratic process
12. The trade union movement
Failed to develop as quickly on the Continent as they had in Britain.
Was from the beginning closely tied to the socialist ideology in France.
Socialist trade unions remained badly splintered, which the French created a national organization called the General Confederation of Labor.
13. Anarchist movements
14. Reasons for increasing population in Europe between 1850 and 1880
Environmental conditions improved
Did not have vaccine for polio
15. Population in British cities
16. Reforms in urban living
Knocking down of defensive