Review: Original Conditioned Stimulus Essay examples

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Learning theory: A model of psychology that explains the human responses through the concept of learning. Learning theory includes behaviourism, cognitive theory, cogintal-behavioural theory, and constructivism.
Describe classical conditioning: is one of the simplest forms of learning. It has a powerful effect on our attitudes, likes and dislikes, as well as our emotional responses. Classical conditioning is also a form of learning in which an association is formed between one stimuli and another.
Pavlovs expierement: ivan Pavlov directed research in psychology at the institute of experimental medicine in st petesburg, Russia in 1891- 1936. He studied the conditioned reflex in dogs. He also questioned himself on how could an involuntary response such as salivation come to be associated with the sights and sounds accompanying the fact of feeding so he built an expiremental environment to carry out his experiment .
Unconditioned stimulus(UCS), unconditional response (UCR), netrual stimulus (NS), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR):
Neutral stimulus: is an occurrence that currently does not produce response when it is presented (for example….)
Unconditioned stimulus: is any stimulus that automatically produces response without any prior learning (for example…)
Unconditioned response: is the automatic unlearned response made to the unconditioned stimulus (for example…)
Conditioned stimulus: is a previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, produces an unlearned response. (for example…)
How does NS become a CS: A neutral stimulus (a tone) elicits no salivation until it is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus (food). After many pairings the neutral stimulus (now called conditioned stimulus) alone produces salivation. Classical conditioning has occurred explain : extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination
Extinction: is the weakening of (and eventual dissaperance) of a learned response. Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery: sometimes occurs when, after extinction , the condition stimulus is presented and the conditioned responses reappears
Generalization: in classical condition, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus. In operant condition, the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus that is similar to the one for which it was originally reinforced.
Discrimination: learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli
Little Albert Study
In 1919, john Watson conducte study to improve the fear that could be classically conditioned. Little albert was conditioned to fear a white rat healso learned to fear things that resembled the white furry rat.
Factors influencing classical conditioning
The number of parings of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus.
The intensity of the unconditioned stimulus
How reliably the conditioned stimulus predicts the unconditioned stimulus
OPERANT CONDITIONING
The type of learning in which the consequences of behavior tend to modify that behavior in the future. Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated. Behavior that is ignored or punished is less likely to be repeated.
B.F SKINNER
Designed a soundproof operant conditioning apparatus. One type of box is equipped with a lever or bar that a rat presses to gain a reward of food pellets or water from the dispenser. Rats conditioned through shaping by pressing the bar for rewards. Other boxes were equipped with disk for pigeons to peck
How is operant condtiong different from classical conditioning
How does behavior become conditioned
2 types of positive reinforcements are
-primary reinforcers (food, water, sleep)
-secondary reinforcers…