The Cell Cycle: Interphase, stages of (G1, S, G2), function of each stage; Mitotic (M) phase.
Mitosis and Meiosis, define precisely mitosis and meiosis? Know phases of, the order of phases, what happens in each phase, how the phases of mitosis and meiosis are similar and differ from each other, what is the significance of Prophase I?
Function of Cytokinesis
Relationship of diploid and haploid cells to mitosis and meiosis
How do the end products (cells) of mitosis and meiosis differ?
What is the significance of meiosis I?
How and why does crossing over occur?
What is the outcome of crossing over?
What is unique about Prophase 1 of Meiosis I?
Know all differences and similarities between Mitosis and Meiosis.
Know all relevant structures & terms: centromere, chromosomes, nuclear membrane, sister chromatids, synapsis, crossing over, tetrad, chiasmata, etc.
Structure of chromosomes, what are homologous chromosomes, what are sister chromatids, what is diploid, what is haploid,
Who was Mendel, what were his major contributions to genetics,
Mendel’s experimental design, why pea plants were good for Mendel’s experiments, definitions of all relevant terms,
What were Mendel’s assumptions,
Mendel’s Laws and how related to meiosis,
Monohybrid versus Dihybrid crosses and what they are for,
Punnett squares and how they are used, what exactly is happening when structuring Punnett squares, types of crosses and their outcomes (i.e. genotypic and phenotypic ratios, types and meaning of test crosses), predictive nature of Mendelian genetics. How do Mendel’s laws of inheritance relate to specific phases of meiosis?
What is useful about pedigrees, Types of traits that lead to nonMendelian ratios, understand specific examples and outcomes of: autosomal recessive disorders, codominance, polygenic inheritance, sex-linked traits, what are autosomal chromosomes, environmental influences.
What is asexual reproduction, what are examples of this, what defines sexual reproduction, how do these two forms of reproduction compare, today, which is the most common form of reproduction, how are male and female defined, what are hermaphrodites, how does this happen,