Furthermore, persistently seeking methods to generate revenue in order to escape further debt, Parliament allowed Charles Townshend, a new prime minister, to pass the Townshend Acts on June 29, 1767. An indirect tax, the acts placed import duties on commodities such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. These indirect import duties were met by further non-importation, or the refusal to purchase the goods. While colonial leaders organized boycotts of the taxed goods, smuggling increased and efforts commenced to develop domestically-produced alternatives; however, admiralty courts were created to prosecute American smugglers. Over the next three years, boycotts persisted in the colonies. On March 5, 1770, angry colonists began throwing snowballs and rocks at British troops guarding the Customs House in Boston. In the commotion, British troops opened fire on the mob, killing five Americans, and this shoot-out became known as the “Boston Massacre.” As a result, the so-called “massacre” was used as propaganda against the British. With tensions in the colonies reaching a breaking point, Parliament repealed most aspects of the Townshend Acts, but the tax on tea remained.
Moreover, on May 10, 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act with the goal of aiding the struggling British East India Company. Parliament had given the monopoly of the tea business in America to the British East Company, meaning that there was a hidden tax on tea. Aware that this was an attempt by Parliament to prevent colonial boycott of British goods, the Sons of Liberty delivered the Boston Tea Party. In 1773, three ships carrying East India Company tea arrived in the port. The Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and boarded the ships and tossed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. A direct affront to British authority, the "Boston Tea Party" forced Parliament to take action against the colonies. Salutary Neglect refers to an unofficial and long-lasting 17th century British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to England. Due to the crown’s absence in enforcing regulations in the