“The ‘just cause’ stipulation of the just-war tradition assumes that nations have a prima facie right to self-defense. Usually, unprovoked aggression provides a just cause for a declaration of war by the victim. But even the basic right of self-defense cannot be held absolutely.” With this quote, philosopher Thomas O’Connor establishes that self-defense was not a pliable cause for the Southern attack on the North, regardless of what conflicts were under development between the Union and the Confederacy. Even though O’Connor does not directly state the just- war tradition to be related to the Civil War, through extensive research, it is possible to explore the possibility that the Civil War was in fact unjust in its entirety. The American Civil War was unjustly fought based upon a majority of the aspects found within the ‘just-war tradition’ explained to us by O’Connor in his article, A Reappraisal of the Just-War Tradition. Now, the question is what is war? Daniel Statman states in his article Can War Be Fought Justly? The Necessity Condition Put to the Test, “A war is a conflict between collectives which are metaphysically distinct from individuals and hence warrant a morality of their own which is different from an irreducible to the morality that governs the relations between individuals.” When considering the just-war tradition, the first aspect one must analyze is, was the war conducted for a just cause. As O’Connor mentions in his article, the only morally justified motive for an authority figure to decide to go to war is for a very momentous event. He states, “The modern view, however, correctly understands international conflict as a long term process; the specific ‘cause’ leading to an outbreak of hostilities may be less important than the underlying circumstances in the relationship between the warring nations.” What this quote establishes is that the consequence of war between nations, or in the Civil War’s case a War Between the States, could be more severe than what caused the motive for going to war in the beginning, which makes the cause of war unjust. The cause of the Civil War dates back to the 1850s when social and political developments such as, the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the Fugitive Slave Act, Bleeding Kansas, the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry drove the house further apart. However, there is not only one cause for the division of the house. There are several, each one negotiable in one way or another. The cause of the Civil War is a subject that has been under much controversy. While slavery was not the entire cause, it was the root of numerous causes. The issue that led to the disorder of the Union was imbedded in the debate over the future of slavery. That dispute led to the succession of several states from the Union. Succession brought about a war in which the Northern states fought to preserve the Union, and the South fought to institute Southern liberation under its own constitution. Referencing back to the definition of what a just cause for war is, the root of slavery does not satisfy the qualifications. A just-war cause as stated by Statman is, “If an aggressor poses a threat to a potential victim. Even if the way a victim can stop an aggressor from carrying out an unjust act upon him/her is to carry out a self-defensive act, which would otherwise be immoral, which carrying out a self-defensive act might still be disproportionate to the unjust attack. This would then be ruled out as morally just.” In this situation, the North and the South are fighting against one another. However, the fight is not only between the states, it is brother versus brother, father versus son, etc. Families are divided and bonds that would otherwise not be broken are diminished. Statman also states within the same article that “when two collectives are engaged in war against one another, the individuals fighting in the war lose their
A great irony of the skinhead subculture is that it is rooted in a multiracial style that emerged in London and other English cities. As the 1960s progressed and the hippie generation began to challenge mainstream ideas of war, work and gender, skinheads emerged in working-class London as a more traditional youth group in opposition to the middle-class, flower-power hippies. Working-class white youths began to adopt the look of an Afro-Caribbean youth subculture called "Rude Boy." They listened to…
e Literature Review in Pol itic al Sc ienc e
Formal Constitutional Scholarship on the
American Presidency: A Literature Review
A literature review (also known as a literature survey or bibliographic essay) is a common assignment across the disciplines.
For more information on how to approach this task, see our handout on Writing Literature Reviews.
For over three decades, scholarship on the American presidency has taken place beneath the shadow of Richard
Neustadt's Presidential Power …
to the absence of Secular Institutions
It is very difficult to define authority, and the history of human civilization is riddled with this question: How do we dictate “political” authority? Some believe that it is the state that controls the legitimate political hegemony. Others believe it is in hands of the people, but for a long portion of human history civilizations have used religion to construct an authority capable of governing people. The history of religion can be traced back over…
The behavior of homo sapiens -- human beings tend to pursue their own interests. They behave in ways that promote individual interests, and are motivated by incentives (both positive and negative). This is one of the reasons proposed for the development of governments: groups of individuals all acting in their own interests leads to collective action problems, and governments exist as a solution to those problems.
Collective action problem -- this occurs when a group of individuals, each acting…
year 1925 would be at home waiting for his wife to come home after her long day at work cooking dinner. The roles would actually be the complete opposite. Over the last century, women have gone from being strictly housewives to fighter pilots in World War II to corporate executives; women of America’s past have worked so hard to become equals they need not stop there, but strive for greatness.
Women in the early twentieth century and preceding centuries had a specific lifestyle, which is completely…
However, starting in latter part of April 2007 for two weeks, the eastern European nation underwent the first cyber-attack to threaten the national safety of an entire nation worldwide. The attacks began within hours of the relocation of the war memorial. Estonian computer specialist reported it as an unparalleled attack on the entire electronic infrastructure of a nation. Estonian officials stated that instructions were posted detailing how to disable Websites through the use of a denial…
Sadly, there are few restraints on the endings of wars. There has never been an international treaty to regulate war's final phase, and there are sharp disagreements regarding the nature of a just peace treaty. There are, by contrast, restraints aplenty on starting wars, and on conduct during war. These restraints include: political pressure from allies and enemies; the logistics of raising and deploying force; the United Nations, its Charter and Security Council; and international laws like the…
know raising the gas tax isn’t an easy choice, but we’re not elected to make easy decisions – we’re elected to make the hard ones.”¶ To offset the revenue raised from increasing the fuel tax, Murphy and Corker propose providing net tax relief for American families and businesses. An example would be extending some of the tax provisions in the “tax extenders” bill that already have broad, bipartisan support, creating potentially billions of dollars in permanent tax relief over the next 10 years alone…
GP NOTES 2010 (ESSAY)
a. New vs. Traditional
b. New: narcissistic?
c. Government Censorship
d. Profit-driven Media
f. Private life of public figures
g. Celebrity as a role model
h. Blame media for our problems
i. Power + Responsibility of Media
j. Media ethics
k. New Media and Democracy
a. Science and Ethics
b. Government and scientist role in science
c. Rely too much on technology?
d. Nuclear technology…
Comprehensive Examination Written Responses
Presented in Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
George E. Anderson III
School of Business and Technology
The mixed method has recently become a popular method of research. Analyze and compare the mixed method, qualitative and quantitative research methods. Evaluate the effectiveness of each as a valid method of research on models of military…