In 1920, the word “robot” was introduced for the first time in a play of Karel Čapek , a Czech writer, and the title of the play was Rossum's Universal Robots. The creator of this word is Czapek Joseph, a brother of the playwright, in an attempt to help his brother to invent a name for living machines in the play (K.Capek, & P. Selver ,1923). In Czech language the word “robot” means “worker”. From that time, the spread of the word “robot” began in books and science fiction films which introduced the first scientific visualization for those robots. The play gave also great prospects and great promises for this machine, which might have intervened in a lot of things, especially industry. After the play, A lot of studies and expectations about robot have been done,but most of them eventually fail. However, after trying many designs and putting attention to finer things, engineers succeeded in introducing a variety of mechanisms for industries. Nowadays, we are on the brink of another major achievements in the field of Robotics Engineering, because of the huge development of computers and artificial intelligence techniques, which is the behavior of certain properties characteristic of software makes it simulates human mental capacities and patterns of work. Robotic technology is one of the most advanced artificial intelligence techniques in terms of applications which can provide a complete solution to a problem. Robots have now become the most important devices in the scientific, industrial and medical fields. It has became a replacement for humans in several areas and has been able to do several jobs to the fullest. For example, robots helps humans to perform complex surgical operations. they are used for the purposes of disarmament and dismantling mines which were planted during the wars, used in the search for natural resources, and used in industry, especially in some factories that manufacture delicate, sensitive and dangerous products. It should be noted that there is a special science called mechatronics, which is looking at the development and industry of robots to suit human needs.(Bishop, 2003, p.1).
In the modern industrial world robots is used to support the production and its development and ensure its quality. Robots do many tasks in the industry, including transportation, welding, assembling and quality inspection. For example, in some car industries robots are use to pick up cars parts from one place to another and use in welding which is an ongoing operation in which the robot welding bar shift along the contact line to be welded. Because robots do all this functions depending on a kinetic system and an advanced programming techniques, the executed tasks are more accurate and meet the standards and specifications of ideal production.
The most important advantages of using robots in manufacturing are increasing productivity, overcoming a shortage of skilled labor, improving the quality of production, and ameliorating work safety issues. However, there might be negative impacts of using robots now and in the future,such as expense and unemployment.
One advantage of using robots in manufacturing is increasing manufacturing productivity by producing more product with less entries such as time, labor, material and energy. Because robots do not get exhausted, they never delay and never take a break. After they have been programmed for a specific task,a robot will work with fast speed and incredible effectiveness. According to Jeff Burnstein, President of the Robotic Industries Association,
“You have to use technology in any way you can to stay competitive, to reduce overall cost, to increase quality and productivity. There are companies that will tell you that the only reason they came back to the US is because of the automation. And I think this is a trend we’ll see persist in the future.” _(2014, p12)
Without the need to take rest periods and the ability to operate 24/7, manufacturing…