Roman Empire and Concept Section Review Essay

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The unsuccessful revolt of Greek city-states in western Anatolia led to two Persian attacks on Greece in the early 5th century BCE.
Persian Wars- Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt though Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at Marathon.

An ambitious Athens took control of a naval empire in the Aegean. The wealth brought in by the empire subsidized Athenian democracy and culture.
Trireme- Greek and Phoenician warship of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C.E. Sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers.

Ironically, Athenian male citizens were freed up to participate in government and politics by restricting the rights and exploiting the labor of slaves and women.
Socrates- Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior.

The Spartans and their allies, frightened by the growing power of Athens, initiated the lengthy Peloponnesian War but were only able to win with Persian help.

Peloponnesian War- A protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. Largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism.

In the mid-fourth century B.C.E, Philip II made Macedonia into a military power and forcibly united the Greek city-states.

His son Alexander the Great conquered and took over the Persian Empire
Alexander- King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Conquered Persian empire. Later known as Alexander The Great.

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In the Hellenistic Age, Greeks controlled western Asia and northwest Africa. Greek culture would have a strong influence in this region for a thousand years.
Hellinistic Age- Historians’ term for the era, usually dated 323-320 BCE, in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam in the 7th century BCE.

Alexander’s empire was broken up into three major successor kingdoms in Europe, Asia, and Africa, each with its own unique challenges.
Ptolemies- Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt for 3 centuries. Largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land.

Alexandria in Egypt, capital of the Ptolemies, was the greatest city in the world. It had a large and diverse population and was a center of commerce for the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean.
Alexandria- City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. Became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolomies.

The Ptolomies created the greatest library of antiquity and the Museum, a center of research fostering advances in scholarship, science, technology, and medicine.
Ptolomies
Alexandria

Ambitious and elite members of indigenous peoples learned Greek and adopted a Greek lifestyle in order to be part of the privileged ruling class, while Greeks borrowed from the ancient heritages of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Ptolomies

Rome’s central location in Italy and the Mediterranean, and its ability to draw on the manpower resources of Italy, were important factors in its rise to empire
Republic- The period from 507-31 BCE, during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.

Early Rome was ruled by kings, but the Republic, inaugurated shortly before 500 BCE, was guided by the Senate, a council of the heads of wealthy.
Senate- Council whose members were heads of wealthy, landowning families.

Roman expansion was due to several factors: the ambition and desire for glory of its leaders, weaker states appealing to Rome for protection, and Roman fear and others’ aggression.
Pax romana- Literally, “Roman peace, “…