Imperator- is where we get the word emperor from.
Julius Caesar- went into Egypt. Murdered by Marc Anthony and his generals.
Octavius Caesar names Caesar Augustus [Son of God]. Caligula was corrupt and Nero was just as bad.
“Bread and Circuses”- They had a lot of holidays and spectacles
Theatre Amphitheater- Amphitheater takes bowl shape and makes it full circle.
Hippodrome- is long open space, has curves at ends, turns into race track.
Colosseum- Nero’s house was there and they tore it down, drained the lake, and built the Colosseium. Made up of barrel vaults. Series of arches outside but doesn’t represent structural system- it’s for decoration.
Circus Maximus- Racetrack. Chariot races.
Triumphal Arch- used as monument. Marks accomplishment.
Arch of Titus triumphal column- Also used as a monument to mark accomplishment. Built like our current malls.
Column of Trajan – triumphant column that commemorates Trajan’s victory in the Darian wars.
Apalodorus of Damascus-Greek engineer, architect, designer, and sculptor. He built the Pantheon, Trajan’s column, and Trajan’s forum.
Trajan’s Market- Large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, located at the opposite end of the Colosseum.
Palentine Hill – the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. Stands 40 metres above the Forum Romanum looking down it on one side, and the circus maximus is on the other.
Domus Augustus – served as the primary residence of Caesar Augustus during his reign.
Domus Aurea [Golden house]- was a large landscaped portico villa built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome.
Severus and Celer- Architected the Domus Aurea. Changed architecture in Ancient Rome.
Pantheon – Round form. Huge foundation. Temple to the Gods in Ancient Rome. Built by Marcus Agrippa. Dome reinforced with columns.
Hadrian – Rebuilt the pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. Also known for building Hadrian’s wall.
Oculus- circular opening in the centre of a dome or wall. Seen in the Pantheon, it allows rain to enter and fall to the floor, where it is carried through drains. The rain keeps the building cool during the summer months. And also allows light into the building, just as the sun lights the earth.
Domus-Single family house, Rich people lived there. About 2,000 in Rome. Fairly common. All on one level, encapsulates nature within it, with an Atrium in the middle. Rooms are arranged around the Atrium. The first Atrium is normal, then the second Atrium generally has a pool in the middle. Tablinum- Dining/living room at the time, sit on couches, in between Atrium rooms. Side rooms were normal rooms. Taberna- Shops that were built into the house in front and then Domus was built behind it.
Herculaneum and Pompeii- Two cities covered by volcanoes ash when it erupted. Both cities were both preserved by the ash since 79 bc.
Rome: Ceasar Agustus charges Rome, then builds walls around it.
Roman Baths: Social scene in Rome Caldarium- Hot baths, circle space Frigidarium- Cold bath, square space with walls Order went Caldarium->Tempadarium->Frigidarium->Pool Thermal Window- was a semi circular window in Roman baths Baths of Caracalla- Built by the emperor Caracalla had three rooms (all baths) then two gym like rooms Baths of Diocletian- Was the grandest of the public baths
Hadrian (Ruler of Rome at the time)- Moves outside of Rome and builds the Hadrian’s Villa @ Tivoli -Its pools commemorated his lost brother.
Judaism- Presented challenge to Roman Pagan Gods
Jesus of Nazareth- (Good Shepherd) Also started challenging the Roman Pagan Gods
Mithras- God of light and dark, underworld, water. He was worshipped by armies in Underground grottos ^All three of these new religions were illegal and were worshipped in houses
Dura Europus- A place where all three religions were worshipped…