LEARNING from the PAST, REPUBLICAN ROME SURVIVES its TURN to EMPIRE as an IMPERIAL HEGEMON Rome managed to transition successfully from a republic to an empire, and to maintain its sway over the Mediterranean world and most of Western and Central Europe for several centuries, largely because it learned from the failed imperial experiences of foregoing hegemons like the Persians, Athenians, or the Hellenistic “Successor States”. Unlike the ethnocentric Greeks, Rome made membership within the empire, Roman citizenship, readily available to the vast majority of the freemen it absorbed through its conquests. Also, despite relying extremely heavily upon slavery, Rome’s simple rules regulating manumitting slaves enabled thousands of slaves to embrace genuine hope by making Roman citizenship readily available to freedmen. Roman citizenship further ensured a rough equality before the law—rough in the same sense as the inequalities that prevail within contemporary US jurisprudence where wealth often enables elites to unduly influence legal decisions. Barring the ability to bribe, socially impress or stigmatize, or to benefit disproportionately from expensive representation, Roman citizens knew that the same laws would apply in Alexandria, Antioch, or Athens as those enforced within the shadow of the Apennines in Italy. Roman justice, then, based upon the principle of equity, became a decidedly centripetal force. Roman courts, supported by the punitive reach of the empire’s legions, nurtured entrepreneurial endeavor by safeguarding merchants against brigands or corsairs on land or sea, or the chicanery of duplicitous or larcenous business associates. Justice and the general peace and security for goods and persons enforced by Rome’s martial might freely bound citizens to Rome as the surest guarantor of their long range welfare. Roman justice and willingness to embrace diverse populations within its citizenry extended to tolerating religious diversity unless that diversity seemed to challenge or threaten to undermine Roman authority, as in the person of Jesus, who eschewed the mantle of “the King of the Jews” but whose followers hailed him as “the Son of God.” Even a prophet of brotherly love who instructed his followers to yield to the temporal authority of Caesar insofar as Caesar did NOT intrude upon maters of faith and conscience, imperiled Caesar since this God of Love set Himself above Caesar, the imperial cult, and Rome’s established gods. In a polyglot hierarchical society crested by emperors hailed as demigods, the loving monotheism promoted by Jesus constituted a disturbingly centrifugal force since Heaven commanded greater authority within Christianity than did imperial decrees, especially if the latter should ever conflict with essential tenets of Christian worship. Rome even managed to survive the advent of Christianity. Although many Roman emperors vigorously but vainly attempted to extirpate Christianity from the empire for nearly three centuries after the Passion by undertaking…
arguably his best. JULIUS CAESAR is no exception.
The real Julius Caesar was a man of great compassion who desired power, but above all, wanted to see the citizens of Rome prosper. After defeating the armies of Pompey and gaining control of all of Rome, Caesar began to institute changes intended for the betterment of the Roman society, and quickly became beloved by his citizens. Unfortunately, his forgiving nature misled him into pardoning and later befriending a former ally of Pompey's named Marcus…
systematization of Roman law and the Roman "constitution" assembled by Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903), German scholars, especially Georg Wissowa (1859–1931), reconstructed authentic Roman religion as a body of sacral law and conservative ritualism informed by legal conceptions of deities. The Roman calendar, projected into the regal period as a document of early systematization, and the lost "books of the priests" (libri sacerdotu
Encyclopedia of Religion
Roman Religion: The Early…
The Roman Empire ran from 753 B.C.E to 600C.E and stretched from Britain and Germany to North Africa and the Persian Gulf. After 395 it was split into the Byzantine Empire and the Western Roman Empire, which quickly sank into anarchy because of the barbarian invaders from the north and east. Han China ran from 221B.C.E to 220 C.E it stretched from all over eastern China to several territories to the west. Although the Romans and Han empires used powerful militaries and infrastructure to control…
Myth: Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus- twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin Princess. They were abandoned on the Tiber River and built a city on that land because of its strategic location and fertile soil.
Rome’s geography: built on 7 rolling hills, curve of the Tiber River, half way up the Italian peninsula, has the ability to control the Mediterranean
First Romans: 3 groups (Latins, Greeks, Etruscans ) who battled for control…
Ancient Rome Religion
Pagans religions believed in many of gods and generally worshipped the Earth, sea, sun, sky, and various other elements of nature. The Romans were polytheistic and much of their lives were spent in fervent effort to please their gods. This was because ancient Romans believed that their gods had great influence over their daily lives and fates.
In order to placate the gods, the Romans believed that certain rituals and rites must be performed in appreciation that certain rituals…
compare today’s architecture with the ancient architecture of the Roman empires we can agree that the ancient Roman architecture is known for three most important things. Firstly the arch, secondly the baked brick and thirdly the use of cement in the common market place. From the ancient times we can still see evidence of concrete columns and other Roman architectural buildings that influence many modern structures.
The Romans were considered to be the great engineers of structural design in their…
The Romans were good at building things. One thing that they were good at was building bridges. The very first bridges were made of wood and had arch like shapes to them. The later bridges were made of stone. These bridges were very sturdy and very strong. Some of the bridges that are built today are modeled from the early Roman bridges.
The Romans are also known for building aqueducts. Some of the areas had hard time getting…
The Roman Republic and Empire Comparison Chart
The Roman Republic
The first 500 years
800BC-510BC Those Mysterious Etruscans
Indo-Europeans who settled in Northern Italy around 2nd millennium
Their lives were highly focused on Death given their elaborate burial chambers
They were heavily influenced by Greek colonists
They had a class system
Passed much of what they learned from Greeks onto Latia (Romans)
They created the Roman numerals
Patriarchy much more than Etruscans (father…
In the time between 100 C.E. and 600 C.E, Rome underwent a wide variety of culture and political changed due to the growth of the Christian church, invasions of Germanic peoples and the increasing presence of their cultural influence. Despite many changes the cultural and political practices of Rome were maintained for over 1000 years by the Byzantine Empire.
Viewing the cultural aspects of Rome, In 100 C.E. Rome was a multiethnic empire in the midst of Pax-Romana. Men dominated most aspects of…
Most societies that developed in ancient civilizations were centered around some form of imperial administration and Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E.-476 C.E.) and Han China (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.) were no different in this sense. Both civilizations had a network of cities and roads, with similar technologies that catalyzed cultural amalgamation and upgraded the standard of living, along with comparable organizational structures. Additionally, both civilizations had problems managing their borders and used…