Ch. 7 Managing Difficulties Conflict is beneficial: examine self-concepts, seek evidence to support decisions, provides sense of identity, stimulates creativity, strengthens shared goals, establishes vision for future.
Conflict resolution- process of resolving disagreements with the use of specific conflict resolution skills. Conflict transformation- moments in the conflict process when parties reach new understandings- of self, others, goal.
The Struggle Spectrum
Mild difference Disagreement Argument Campaign Litigation Fight
Escalation- raised voices, make self larger, personal space invaded, more people, past conflicts, feeling threatened,
De-escalation- calm voices, define conflict as mutual problem, sit down…
Sources of Conflict
Distribution of resources- both tangible and intangible.
Individual Psychological Needs- Competing/incompatible goals, power discrepancies, personality clashes, different motivators…
Value Differences- cultural viewpoints, religious/personal belief. Lack of understanding.
Approaches to Conflict
Avoidance- low-assertive/low-cooperative. Denial. Unassertive.
Accomodation- “whatever you say/need.” Low-assertive/high-cooperative.
Competition- high-assertive/low-cooperative. Personal best interests. Win-los
Compromise- Each side concedes. Give-and-take.
Collaberation- Most preferred. Concern for both parties. Instead of giving up, parties combine.
7 Phase Model of Managing Difficulties
Phase 1: Define the objectives for the Solution- short/long term. All involved parties must agree to operate within the same ground rules to progress smoothly.
Phase 2: Identify the Problem- collect facts. Identify/determine underlying causes of the problem. List driving forces of the problem.
Phase 3: Analyze and Interpret Data-
Phase 4: Facilitate Creative Solutions-
Phase 5: Select from Among Alternatives-
Phase 6: Generate Strategies and Implement Decisions-
Phase 7: Evaluate the Process and Outcome-
Assertiveness in Managing Difficulties
Aggressive Behaviors- based on lack of respect. Rarely retain personal credibility or respect from the group.
Passive Behaviors- lack of respect for ones self. Ineffective.
Manipulative Behaviors- Lack of respect for self and others. Often results in resentment by others.
Assertive Behaviors- Respect for self/others. “I” statements The Mediation Process (5 Steps)
Step 1: Set the Tone- State positive intentions
Step 2: Define and Discuss Conflict- “I” messages. Let both sides speak equally
Step 3: Summarize Progress- Each person summarizes situation from their viewpoints.
Step 4: Explore Alternative Solutions- List as many alternative solutions as possible.
Step 5: Set a time for Follow-up- Agree on time to check back in with those involved.
Ch. 8 Managing and Motivating Participant Behaviors
Behavior management- altering or maintaining positive relationships and actions in rec and leisure services.
Approaches to Behavior Management
Preventative- using effective leadership techniques, beginning with preventative mgmt techniques. Frequent monitoring of participants.
Moral Education- using real life dilemmas and role-playing.
Affective and Communication Models- Target ones emotions and feelings. Try to determine causes for undesirable behaviors. Active listening.
Behavior Modification- Direct instruction. Positive and negative reinforcement.
Assertive Discipline- Structured. Systematic. “I” statements.
Reality Therapy- Starts with awareness. Confrontational questioning.
Social Skills Training- Direct instruction. Model and practice social skills.
Behavioral and Family Therapy- Extreme participant actions.
Purposes of Behavior Management
Safety reasons. Smooth conduct. Control. Instruct or educate.
Factors Affecting Behavior Management
Developmental ability, age, health/disability status, gender, cultural background