988 refers to the date of the Christianity of Rus. When Russia expects Christianity under the rule of St. Vladimir.
Aleksandr Nevsky (1219-1263) served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history. He was known for Stopping the advance (from the west) of the Swedes (1240) and the Livonian Knights into Russia. He was also known for stopping advances (from the east) of the Mongols. Alexander maintained an alliance between Russia and the Mongols during his ruling, in doing so he remained faithful to his father's (laroslav Vsevolodovich) policy of cooperation with the Mongols. He had the full support of the Russian Orthodox Church, which enjoyed considerable freedom and influence under the Mongols and slowly he won the people too, for in return for his cooperation Alexander received major concessions from the Mongol khans. Most importantly, they agreed to reduce, and later abandon, their demands for Russian troops and to withdraw their tax collectors from Russian lands.
Ivan I Kalita (born 1304? -, 1340), grand prince of Moscow (1328–40) and grand prince of Vladimir (city east of Moscow) (1331–40) whose policies increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia. He saw the start of the building the Kremlin (first made out of oak). A number of churches were built. Ivan made Moscow very wealthy by maintaining his loyalty to the Horde and using them to his advantage. He arranged alliances and dynastic marriages, waged wars, and used the power of the Golden Horde to his advantage. He loaned many of his fellow princes money, which they eventually proved unable to repay. In those cases, the Grand Prince of Moscow would take their land and incorporate it into his realm. He had a very good relationship with the Khan during the time so whenever there was an attack on Moscow the Mongols would help protect them.
Third Rome is the idea that some city, state, or country is the successor to the legacy of ancient Rome. This idea was written by the Russian monk Filofei . he wrote : “I would like to say a few words about the existing Orthodox empire of our most illustrious, exalted ruler. He is the only emperor on all the earth over the Christians, the governor of the holy, divine throne of the holy, ecumenical, apostolic church, which in place of the churches of Rome and Constantinople is in the city of Moscow, protected by God, in the holy and glorious Uspenskij Church of the most pure Mother of God. It alone shines over all the earth more radiantly than the sun. For know well, those who love Christ and those who love God, that all Christian empires will perish and give way to the one kingdom of our ruler, in accord with the books of the prophet, which is the Russian empire. For two Romes have fallen, but the third stands, and there will never be a fourth.”
In the quote, Filofei describes the three Rome’s as: the church of old Rome – that fell because of heresy, The church of Constantinople – that fell because of infidels, and the church of Vasilii III – which was to illuminate the entire world. The importance of this text is that Filofei thinks of churches before the state and that he is