Generate audience involvement
1. Personalize our speech; tell your unique experience with the topic;
2. Use audience participation;
3. Use volunteers from the audience (ask them ahead of time, so you know they are willing and able to help you.)
4. If you have a question and answer period following your speech be sure to:
a. listen to substance of the questions
b. paraphrase confusing questions for understanding
c. avoid defensiveness
d. answer questions as briefly as possible, then check with person who asked the question to see if you’ve provided enough information.
Increases level of commitment and attention from the audience.
6 - Write and re-write. Revise the speech in order to make it clearer. Avoid jargon.
1. Simplicity – rule of 7 (not more than 7 words per line or 7 lines per visual aid)
2. Size - large enough to be seen in the back of the room.
3. Attractiveness – neat, interesting
4. Appropriate – fits the topic; is not offensive to audience members
5. Reliability – be sure equipment works; check out all equipment before your speech.
1 - Persuasion is the act of motivating someone, through communication, to change a particular belief, attitude, or behavior.
Characteristics of Persuasion: • Persuasion is Not Coercive • Persuasion is Usually Incremental • Persuasion is Interactive • Persuasion Can Be Ethical
1 - Committing Plagiarism
- Claiming someone else's ideas as your own
- Quoting without citing the source
2 - Relaying False Information
- Deliberate lying
- Ignorant misstatement
- Deliberate distortion and suppression on material
- Fallacious reasoning to misrepresent truth
3 - Witholding Information; Suppression
- About self (speaker); not disclosing private motives or special interests
- About speech purpose
-About sources (not revealing sources; plagiarism)
- About evidence; omission of certain evidence (card stacking)
-About opposing arguments; presenting only one side
4 - Appearing to be what one is not, insincerity
- In words, saying what one does not mean or believe
- In delivery (for example, feigning enthusiasm)
5 - Using emotional appeals to hinder truth
- Using emotional appeals as a substitute or cover-up for lack of sound reasoning and valid evidence
- Failing to use balanced appeals
3 - Social judgment theory is one of many theories that tries to explain how people choose one belief instead of another. This theory can explain why people have a hard time letting go of some beliefs and reject other beliefs so readily.
ex. Opinions on punishment for murder range from required therapy to mandatory capital punishment. If a friend was murdered, I would prefer life imprisonment, would not object to capital punishment, but would object strongly to any non-custodial action.
Questions of Fact: These are issues where there are two or more sides with conflicting evidence. It can’t be settled with a yes/no response. Needs careful examination, open to debate, interpretation of evidence, variety of sources.
Examples: Highline students study harder than Green River Students. Universal health care will solve many health care problems.
Question of Value: These are issues of worth and value. Before answering this type of question you often need to answer a question of fact. They often used statements which contain words like better, best, good, bad, etc.
Example: Honda automobiles are the best buy on the market today.
Questions of Policy: These are issues which go beyond fact and value and make recommendations.
These statements (questions) often contain the words “should” or “ought to” in it.
Example: Student tuition ought to be lowered and maintained because escalating costs will limit the possibility of everyone getting an education.
5 - convincing – which is to change or reinforce the audience’s thinking.
actuating – which is to change the audience’s behavior.