Likely Environment in which Salmonella Enterica Lives * Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals, including birds. * Salmonella infections are likely to be carried through household pets containing the Bacteria,
* Mainly reptiles for example, pet tortoises, snakes, iguanas and frogs namely aquatic turtles.
* Improperly prepared meats and seafood, or the surfaces of raw eggs,
* Fruits or vegetables that haven’t been properly disinfected. Infected food has an unusual look or smell. Due to Poor kitchen hygiene especially restaurants.
* Contaminated poultry, chicken eggs and products that contain eggs. Most common are farms that contain thousands of chickens all living in the same area, where dead chickens are left for days before they are removed from others. If the chicken contains the Salmonella bacteria, the organism can spread rapidly through Thousands of others. When these chickens are processed and sent to stores all over the country, a mass salmonella outbreak can occur.
* When humans are infected they expel some of the bacteria in their feces. Where there are areas with poor sanitation, these bacteria can get into the water system where they can infect more people or animals.
* Chicken eggs can contain Salmonella bacteria both on the surface as well as inside. After hens lay eggs they sit on top of them to keep them warm. While sitting, fecal matter can transfer from the chicken to the surface of the egg. If the chicken is infected with the Salmonella bacteria, this can spread; the eggs must be properly disinfected to prevent the disease. Salmonella can also live on the inside of the egg, the ovaries of a hen can also be contaminated which contaminate the egg before the shell forms. .
REPORT Technology that people would need in order to investigate features of this bacteria Explain Why the technology is necessary to investigate the features of the organism.
Aim: To identify the and diagnose the bacteria Salmonella Enterica using technology.
It can take at least three to five days to obtain a result using traditional method of detection for Salmonella. Contaminated food could already be present in grocery stores. Hundreds of people could be affected before its even diagnosed as salmonella. For this reason there have been rapid screening methods developed to produce results more quickly for food and environmental samples.
Traditional Methods of Identifying Salmonella Enterica
The most common method for identifying Salmonella Enterica is by using stool samples, even animal stools and water can also be tested. Identification based on identifying the appearance of the cells and using biochemical testing such as fermentation of glucose, and tests which identify the chemical properties in the bacteria.
Rapid Methods * Have been developed into commercial products, like rapid detection kits which also use biochemical structures in the organism.
The latest method is a PCR method developed by a scientist called Mustapha in America Missouri University. The PCR method amplifies a single gene found in the DNA of the particular organism (Salmonella) after been magnified its copied millions of times, this makes it easier to identifying bacterial using visual techniques. She added a dye called ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) to the test sample. It then binds to the DNA molecules; The dye cannot penetrate the live