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BIOL 2404 SPRING 2013 - EXAM 4 Study Guide
Use this study guide as an outline for the things you need to study. As in the previous exam, I recommend that you at least read the chapter summaries on your textbook. The distribution of the material will be the following:
Chapter 24 – 10 questions
Chapter 25 – 20 questions
Chapter 27 – 20 questions

Chapter 24 – Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation (10 Questions)
Even though we covered carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism in the previous exam you should still know the terms associated with such processes (gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipogenesis, lipolysis) to help you with the material that will be included in this exam.
Catabolic and Anabolic State
Absorptive and Post-absorptive state
Metabolic role of the liver
Lipoproteins (HDL, LDLs, VLDLs, and chylomicrons) and disease
Energy balance, obesity (BMI), and regulation of food intake
Metabolic rate
Body Temperature Regulation (mechanisms of heat exchange and homeostatic imbalances – hyperthermia, fever, heat exhaustion and hypothermia)

Chapter 25 – The Urinary System (20 Questions)
Kidney Functions
Anatomy of the Urinary System and blood flow
Internal Anatomy of the Kidney
Nephrons (renal capsule, renal tubule) and nephron capillary beds
Physiology of the Urinary System: Process of urine formation (glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion). Know details discussed in class (ex: What is the filtration membrane? What forces affect filtration? What are the two reabsorption pathways? What makes solutes move back from the filtrate to the blood? What do we mean by transport maximum? Where does tubular secretion happen? What things get secreted by tubular secretion? How do we adjust urine concentration? What do we mean by countercurrent? What happens at the collecting ducts? How does ADH exert its effects? How do diuretics work?
Homeostatic imbalances covered in class (renal disease, renal failure, incontinence, urinary…