Sch4U Final Exam Study Note Essay

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Chemistry Exam Study Sheet

Organic Chemistry • Study of compounds to which carbon is the principal element. • Carbon is special because it has 4 bonds.

Functional Groups • Organic substances are organized into organic families. • Organic Families – group of organic compounds with common structural features. o Each family has a recognizable physical property and a specific structural arrangement. o Each combination is referred to as a functional group. o Even though many functional groups exist, they essentially consist of only 3 main components. ▪ Carbon- carbon multiple bonds ▪ Single bonds between a carbon atom and a more electronegative atom. ▪ Carbon atom double bonded to an
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o Overall, reactive to the oxygen. Removes 2 hydrocarbon atoms resulting in formation of a C=O group.
o This organic compound has a terminal carbonyl functional group. o Ie. R-C-O-H o The carbonyl group always occurs at the end of a parent chain. o These compound are detached over a mile away in various chemical labs because if their distinctive odors.

Naming of Aldehydes o When naming aldehydes, drop the “e” from the parent alkane chain and at the ending of “al”.

Ketones o Ketones are organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms.

Naming Ketones o Ketones are named by replacing the “e” ending with an “one” ending.

Carboxylic Acids o Carboxylic acids are characterized by the presence of a specific functional group. o Written as –COOH o They are generally weak acids o They have sour tastes

Naming Carboxylic Acids o Take the name of the alkane ending off and replace with “OIC” acid o If a carboxylic acid has multiple carboxyl groups, the term “dioic acid” is used.

Esters o Occurs naturally in plants o A carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to form