October 14, 2012
The brain consists of three main sections. They are the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. These are connected to the central nervous system of the spinal cord (Pinel, 2011). The three sections of the brain can be subdivided into five main structures. The forebrain is where the two main structures reside; this includes the telencephalon and diencephalon which are located within the central nervous system. The midbrain is where the mesencephalon is located along with the hindbrain; the forebrain has the two final structures which are metencephalon and myelencephalon these main structures reside within the central nervous system of the brain (Pinel, 2011).
The Myelencephalon, which is known as the medulla, is located in the hindbrain. The medulla of the brain is the main structure that can carry signals throughout the entire body (Pinel, 2011). The medulla is responsible for the reticular that controls information within the brains central nervous system. The reticular information can be a complex network of the white and gray matter; this can smooth the transition between the descending and ascending signals of the central nervous system within the myelencephalon. The reticular information affects other functions of the body that includes sleep, movements, and arousal. The myelencephalon along with its reticular information can process structures of the brain that can become more serious than expected.
Located within the hindbrain are structures that are known for the metencephalon. The metencephalon plays the important role in the reticular information and the myelencephalon. These structures located in the hindbrain create a bulge area that is called the pons. The pons is combined with the cerebellum structure are two main divisions of the brain structure that is the metencephalon. The cerebellum controls the sensory motor function throughout the entire body (Pinel, 2011).
The midbrain is where the mesencephalon can be divided in two structures. The tectum contains two areas known as the colliculi. The posterior colliculi can affect the visual functioning that can also impact the auditory functions. This next structure is the second division of the mesencephalon which is called the tegmentum. This tegementum has a role in reducing pain (Pinel, 2011).
Diencephalon is located within the forebrain, the two structures of the diencephalon are known as the thalamus which is responsible for receiving and processing signals throughout the area of the sensory cortex (Pine, 2011). The second structure of the diencephalon and the hypothalamus can motivate behaviors which releases hormones from the pituitary gland. The hormones in the pituitary gland are responsible for the production of the body’s nasal mucus. The motor cortex that issues the muscles of the body to produce movement, is a part of the forebrain frontal lobe. The cerebral cortex helps process sensory information to the brain. It also gives a direct motor response to make up the association cortex. Inside the forebrain is where the diencephalon’s several structures, which is thalamus. This particular structure allows the reception and the transmission of signals to the sensory cortex. There are other structures found on the surface of which is located in the diencephalon and that is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has structures that are located on the surface that includes the mammillary bodies of optic