Schomaker Aranda Madrid Science Fair Essay

Submitted By Caroline-Rose
Words: 1514
Pages: 7

RUNNING HEAD: [short name for your paper]

Dissolving Calcium Kidney Stones

Caroline Schomaker
Danielle Aranda
Estephanie Madrid
Eastlake High School
12th AP Biology
Ms. Juarez
Fall 2014
INTRODUCTION
Kidney stones are solid accumulations of material that form in the tubal system of the kidney. Kidney stones cause problems when they block the flow of urine or the urinary tract. They are known to cause severe pain when the stone passes through the ureter. Urine is formed by the kidneys. Blood flows into the kidneys, and nephrons, specialized tubes, within the kidneys allow a certain amount of fluid from the blood along with certain substances dissolved in that fluid, to flow out of the body as urine. Sometimes, a problem causes the dissolved substances to become solid again. This is through the process of crystallization. Tiny crystals then form in the urine, meet, and come together to form a larger solid mass called a kidney stone. Many kidney stones are small enough that the kidney continues to function normally, and the stones never cause any pain. These stones are called “silent stones”. Kidney stones can obstruct the flow of the ureter. The kidney is not accustomed to experiencing any pressure. When pressure builds from back- up urine, the kidney may swell which is known as hydronephrosis. If the kidney is subjected to this pressure for a long period of time, there may be damage to delicate kidney structures. When the kidney stone is lodged down further down the ureter, the backup of urine may also cause the ureter to swell which is known as hydroureter. Because the ureter is a muscular tube, the presence of the stone makes the tube spasm, causing severe pain. About 10 percent of all people have a significant kidney stone during their lifetime. People who are prone to having kidney stones involve the nature of eating a lot of animal protein and drinking too few fluids. About 80 percent of all kidney stones are calcium stones. These stones are composed of either calcium and phosphate, or calcium and oxalate. People with calcium stones may have other diseases that cause them to have increased blood levels of calcium. These diseases include primary parathyroidism, sarcoidosis, hyperthyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, multiple myeloma, hyperoxaluria, and some types of cancer.

EXPERIMENT
Question:
What chemicals will be effective in the destruction of calcium kidney stones?

Hypothesis:
If finding the right chemical to destroy calcium kidney stones, then it will lead to finding the appropriate step in creating a medication for passing kidney stones, creating complete homeostasis in the body.
Independent variable: Chemicals
Dependent variable: Kidney Stones

Prediction:
Finding right chemicals that destroy certain types of kidney stones, it will then lead to an innovation that does not affect bodily tissue to save patients from bearing the crucial pain of passing of the stone.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Materials:
• Blender or use alternative sealable sandwich baggie • Salt • Cold water • Cheesecloth • Strainer • Funnel • Test tube • Meat tenderizer • Cold rubbing alcohol (91-95%); • Skewer • Glass stirring rod

Procedure: • 1/8 teaspoon table salt (less than 1ml)200 ml • 1 cup cold water (200 ml)

Put the ingredients in the blender then mix on high for about one minute for the solution to liquidate. Pour the mixture into test tubes or other small glass containers, each about 1/3 full.

Safety:
Apron will be used to protect clothing. Gloves will be used to properly handle the cheesecloth and salt.

Illustration: Salt Crystals for making sea salt HYPERLINK "http://dinnerwithjulie.com/2012/03/31/homemade-sea-salt/" http://dinnerwithjulie.com/2012/03/31/homemade-sea-salt/
Calcium Kidney Stones HYPERLINK "http://www.sph.umich.edu/scr/research/project.cfm?deptID=3&groupID=75&projectID=264" http://www.sph.umich.edu/scr/research/project.cfm?deptID=3&groupID=75&projectID=264…