1. Agglomeration - The spatial clustering of people and economic activities, especially industries that are related or interdependent, in a place.
2. Agricultural Surplus - Agricultural production in excess which the producer needs for his own sustenance for his family and then sold for consumption to the market.
3. Bid-rent Curve - Graph that shows the amount a bidder (ex: a business or individual) is willing to pay or land relative to the distance of that land from the central business district.
4. Blockbusting - Using scare tactics and panic selling to promote the rapid transition of a neighborhood from one ethnic or racial group to another.
5. Central Business District (CBD) - the part of the downtown where major ofﬁce and retail businesses are clustered.
6. Central City - The area enclosed by the legal boundaries of a city.
7. Central Place - A settlement that provides goods and services for its residents and its surrounding trade or market area.
8. Central Place Theory - A theory developed by Walter Christaller that market forces account for the distribution of central places in an area, and that the optimal spatial arrangement of central places creates hexagonally shaped trade or market areas.
9. Centralization - Forces that draw people and businesses into the downtown or central city.
10. Concentric Zone Model - A description of urban structure that was created by
Ernest Burgess and emphasize the development of circular rings of similar land use around the central city, each occupied by different ethnic and socioeconomic groups.
11. Decentralization - In urban geography, forces that draw people and businesses out of the central city, often into suburbs. In political geography, a process whereby a state transfers functions or authority from the central government to lower-level internal subdivisions.
12. Edge Cities - New downtowns consisting of clusters of business activity that developed in the suburbs surrounding city.
13. Enclosure Movement - The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
14. European Cities - Still having Medieval characteristics such as narrow buildings, winding streets, church in the center of the city, and high walls surrounding the city center for defense against enemies.
15. Filtering - In urban geography, the process whereby home ownership in a neighborhood gradually transitions from high, to middle, to lower-income households over time.
16. Food Desert - An area characterized by a lack of affordable, fresh, and nutritious foods. 17. Functional Complexity - The ability of a town or city to support sizable concentrations of people who earn their living from specialized, non farming activities. 18. Functional Zonation - The division of a city into areas or zones that share similar activities and land use.
19. Gentriﬁcation - A process of urban residential change that occurs when more afﬂuent people purchase deteriorated buildings in low income neighborhoods in order to restore or renovate them.
20. Green Belt - in European cities, undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law
21. Hinterland - The trade area served by a central place.
22. Hybrid City - A city that exhibits a mixture of indigenous, colonial, and globalizing inﬂuences. 23. Informal Sector - The retail, manufacturing, and service activities that operate on a small scale , without government regulation or oversight, and that are not measured or recorded in formal or ofﬁcial statistics.
24. Level of Urbanization - The percentage of people living in urban places in some deﬁned area.
25. Latin American City Model - Combines elements of Latin American culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones. Includes a thriving
CBD and commercial spine. The quality of houses decreases as you move outward