The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain how our universe was formed. We know that our universe did have a beginning but how exactly was all matter formed? The theory basically states that the entire universe was compacted into a small space and inflated to form space, time, matter and energy in an instant. We tend to imagine that it happened as a large explosion; however the theory states that it happened as an expansion. This expansion would have been complete in less than a minute. The Big bang theory is the most widely accepted theory of how our universe was formed and was first proposed in the 1920’s and 1930’s.
The Big bang is based on three types of evidence. This evidence is
- The fact that even today the universe is constantly expanding. Stars and celestial bodies give off a frequency of light that has a red shift. A device called a spectrometer is used to measure this shift.
- The Big Bang model states that theoretically there should be certain percentages of elements in the atmosphere. The earth should consist of 75% hydrogen and 24% helium. The observable universe does actually consist of these percentages.
- In 1948 a Russian astronomer proposed that after such an explosion there should be a large amount of radiation in the universe. This radiation has been detected in the form of radio waves and this evidence cemented the theory.
The big bang occurred as follows about 15 billion years ago.
1. The universe existing in a space no larger than a golf ball.
2. An exponential expansion of the universe to form matter, space, energy and time.
3. Electrons and quarks formed. The nuclei of atoms were formed from protons and neutrons.
4. The universe produced a large amount of heat. This cooled and then the nuclei and electrons combined to form atoms.
5. The universe became transparent which allow light to escape into